WILLIAM DURANDUS ~ The SACRED VESTMENTS
WILLIAM DURANDUS ~ The SACRED VESTMENTS
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The THIRD BOOK of the RATIONALE DIVINORUM OFFICIORUM of DURANDUS, BISHOP of MENDE
ENGLISHED by the Rev. T.H. PASSMORE and PUBLISHED by SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON & COMPANY of LONDON ~ MDCCCICIX
CHAPTER I ~ PROEME
CHAPTER II ~ Of the AMICE
CHAPTER III ~ Of the ALBE
CHAPTER IV ~ Of the ZONE or GIRDLE
CHAPTER V ~ Of the STOLE
CHAPTER VI ~ Of the MANIPLE
CHAPTER VII ~ Of the CHASUBLE
CHAPTER VIII ~ Of the BUSKINS and SANDALS
CHAPTER IX ~ Of the UNDERGIRDLE and VEIL
CHAPTER X ~ Of the TUNIC
CHAPTER XI ~ Of the DALMATIC
CHAPTER XII ~ Of the GLOVES
CHAPTER XIII ~ Of the MITRE
CHAPTER XIV ~ Of the RING
CHAPTER XV ~ Of the PASTORAL STAFF
CHAPTER XVI ~ Of the SUDARIUM
CHAPTER XVII ~ Of the PALL
CHAPTER XVIII ~ Of the FOUR COLOURS WHICH the CHURCH USETH in HER VESTMENTS
CHAPTER XIX ~ Of the VESTMENTS of the LAW or of the OLD TESTAMENT
[Please note any typographical errors and e-mail them to danmitsui [at] hotmail [dot] com, with the subject line DURANDUS - ERRORS.]
Here beginneth the Book of the Vestments of Ornaments of the Church, as worn by Priests and Bishops, and other Ministers.
I. It behoveth not to wear the Sacred Vestments in the use of everyday. Whereby we mark, that even as we make change of vesture according unto the letter, so must we do also according unto the spirit, We may not enter therefore into the Holy of Holies with garments tainted by the use of common life; but with a pure conscience and with clean and holy raiment must we handle the holy things of God. Wherefore Stephen, Pope, did order that the Sacred Vestments should not be used, save in the rites of the Church, and in service meet for God; as saith Ezekiel in the forty-fourth chapter, THEY SHALL NOT SANCTIFY THE PEOPLE WITH THEIR GARMENTS. One raiment therefore hath Divine religion, for the Church's Offices; and another hath man for common use, to deliver the lesson of good conversation unto all Christian folk: to the end that they, being washed from their former foulness, may be made new men in Christ. For at such time the Priest doth doff the old man with his doings, and putteth on the new man, made in the image of God. By the vestments, moreover, as worn only in sacred services, we do understand that not all holy things are to be unfolded unto the people. Note also that in the days of the Emperor Ludovix, the son of Charlemagne, the Bishops and clergy laid aside their girdles wove with gold, and their exquisite garments and other trappings of the world.
2. Now the Sacred Vestments seem to have been taken from the Law of old. For the Lord gave commandment unto Moses that he should make for Aaron the High Priest and for his sons HOLY GARMENTS FOR GLORY AND FOR BEAUTY, that being washed and clad in sacred vesture they might discharge their office in the sanctuary. For by the space of forty days the Lord did teach Moses to make pontifical and priestly vestments for His Priests and for the sons of Levi, yea, ornaments and robes of linen; moreover, Miriam wove and wrought them unto the use of ministry of the Tabernacle of the Covenant. And so it is said in the forty-seventh chapter of Ecclesiasticus, HE BEAUTIFIED THEIR FEASTS. There be certain Vestments, on the other hand, which are taken from the Apostles: but both these and those do signify virtues, and express the ministry of the Incarnation.
3. The Bishop, of a truth, when about to celebrate, doth put off his clothes of everyday, and arrayeth himself in garments pure and holy.
And first, he must put on the Sandals, that he may be mindful of the Incarnation of the Lord.
Secondly, he placeth upon himself the Amice, that he may restrain his motions and his thoughts, his lips and tongue, that he may have a clean heart, receiving a right spirit renewed within him.
Thirdly, the Albe, which reacheth to his feet; that he may have enduring purity in his flesh.
Fourthly, the Girdle, that he may rein in the impulse of desire.
In the fifth place, the Stole, for token of obedience.
In the sixth place, the Tunic, which is of blue, signifying heavenly conversation.
In the seventh place, he doth put on the Dalmatic, which is holy piety, and the mortifying of the flesh.
In the eighth place, the Gloves, that he refuse vainglory.
In the ninth place, the Ring, that he love his Bride, the Church, even as himself.
In the tenth place, the Chasuble, which is Charity.
In the eleventh place, the Napkin, that he wipe away with penance whereinsoever, through frailty or ignorance, he is a sinner.
In the twelfth place, he putteth on the Pall, to shew himself that he imitateth Christ, Who bare our sicknesses.
In the thirteenth place, the Mitre, that he so live as to be worthy of receiving an eternal crown.
In the fourteenth place, he taketh the Staff, which is the authority of power and doctrine.
And after this he goeth upon carpets, that he may learn to despise the earth, and to be in love with heavenly things. And with all these foregoing Vestments he is clad by his Ministers; for the angels do minister unto him, that he may array himself in the garments of the Spirit: or because he is Vicegerent of Christ, unto Whom angels minister, and Whom all things serve.
The Bishop, then, looking toward the north - or toward the east, or the Altar, he may look, if it be more convenient - like a rescuer, a warrior about to fight with a long-standing foe, doth put on the Sacred Vestments as one accoutreth himself with arms, according to the Apostle, as I shall presently set forth.
4. First, the sandals hath he for greaves of war, lest aught of the stain or dust of this world's affections cleave unto him. Secondly, with the Amice, as with an helm, he covereth his head. Thirdly, with the Albe, as with a breast-plate, he envelopeth his whole body. Fourthly, he taketh the Girdle, to a bow, and the Undergirdle to a quiver; now the Undergirdle is that which hangeth down from the Girdle, and wherewith the Bishop's stole is fastened into the same. In the fifth place, with the Stole he surroundeth his neck, as one that brandisheth a spear in the face of his enemy. In the sixth place, he taketh the Maniple, as who wieldeth a club. Lastly, with the Chasuble he covereth himself as it were with a shield; and with a Book he armeth his hand, as with a sword. Of all the which I will speak singly in a different wise hereafter.
And so these are the accoutrements wherewith the Bishop or the Priest ought to arm himself, willing to do battle against ghostly wickedness. For thus saith the Apostle: THE WEAPONS OF OUR WARFARE ARE NOT CARNAL; BUT MIGHTY TO THE PULLING DOWN OF STRONGHOLDS. And in another Epistle, that unto the Ephesians, in the sixth chapter: PUT YE ON , saith he, THE ARMOUR OF GOD, THAT YE MAY BE ABLE TO STAND AGAINST THE WILES OF THE DEVIL. STAND THEREFORE HAVING YOUR LOINS GIRT ABOUT WITH TRUTH, AND HAVING ON THE BREASTPLATE OF RIGHTEOUSNESS, AND YOUR FEET SHOD WITH THE PREPARATION OF THE GOSPEL OF PEACE; ABOVE ALL TAKING THE SHIELD OF FAITH, WHEREWITH YE SHALL BE ABLE TO QUENCH ALL THE FIERY DARTS OF THE WICKED: AND TAKE THE HELMET OF SALVATION, AND THE SWORD OF THE SPIRIT, WHICH IS THE WORD OF GOD. Which armour is the foregoing sevenfold priestly vesture, signifying the seven-fold virtue of the Priest; and representing moreover the raiment of Christ wherewith He was arrayed at the time of His Passion, as shall be said anon.
5. Therefore the Bishop must take earnest thought, and the Priest give careful heed, that he bear not the sign without the thing signified: that is, that he wear not the Vestment without its virtue; lest perchance he be as a sepulcre, whited without, BUT WITHIN FULL OF ALL UNCLEANNESS. For what Priest soever adorneth himself with vestments, and putteth not on good manners, the more worthy of respect he seem unto men, so much the more unworthy doth he become in the sight of God. Wherefore the glory of the Episcopate is not approved by the splendour of garments, but by brightness of souls: since those very adornments which did once delight the eyes of the flesh did call the rather for those virtues which were to be understood by their mean; that whatsoever those vestments with the gleam of their gold, the sheen of their jewels, and the variety of all kinds of broidery, did signify, might in these latter days shine out in the conduct and deed of the wearer. For even amongst the ancients the form did win reverence for its meaning, and in our own days the experience of deeds is surer than the riddle of symbols; whereof, with other matters, we read in the Pontifical, where it treateth of the consecration of the Bishop.
6. So accoutred, then, for his conflict AGAINST SPIRITUAL WICKEDNESS IN HIGH PLACES, and for the allaying of the Judge's anger against His subjects, he proceedeth to the Altar, and by the Confession doth renounce the dominion of the devil, and accuseth himself; and upon ordinary days the folk, as about to pray for their champion, do prostrate themselves upon the ground. When he uttereth the Collects and other devotions, he doth fight as it were with all his might against the devil. When the Deacon before the Gospel upon Fast-days foldeth back the Chasuble over his shoulder, he brandisheth as it were a sword against the foe. When the Epistle is read, it is the edicts of the Emperor that are being proclaimed by the voice of the herald. The chants are the trumpeters, the precentors ruling the choir are the generals of the host marshalling it unto battle, and as they lead the onset, others come to their aid; and the strains of the Sequence are the plaudits and the praise of victory. When the Gospel is read, the foe is as it were wounded with the sword, or scattered forces after victory are gathered into line. The Bishop, while he preacheth, is the Emperor, lauding the conquerors; the Oblations are the spoils, which the victors share; and the strains of the Offertory are the triumph, due to the Emperor. The Pax at the end is given unto the people, as a token of their quiet now that the foe is overthrown. And at the last the folk, after leave granted unto them in the Ite missa est, depart again unto their own with gladness, for that victory and peace be won.
Wherefore the Priest, willing to celebrate Mass, must adorn himself with apparel which agreeth unto his order, and the beauty of his life must beseem his vesture's splendour.
7. Now in this matter it must be noted, that there be six Vestments common unto both Bishop and Priest, for that there be six matters wherein standeth such power as belongeth alike to both. Yet are there nine ornaments peculiar to the Bishop, because there are nine points wherein standeth such power as belongeth to the Bishop alone. By this reckoning, then, of Vestments common and peculiar, are signified the functions common to both Bishop and Priest, and those peculiar to the former alone. Of such appointment, moreover, we read both in the Old and in the New Testament; for we are told that the High Priest, beside those garments which he had in common with the Priests, had also certain peculiar to himself. But in the Old Testament there were four common, and four peculiar, as shall be set forth in the chapter of the Vestments of the Law; and this, indeed, was demanded by mystic truth, for those vestments were given unto carnal and worldly men. For unto the flesh the number four doth well agree, by reason of the four Humours; and unto the world, by reason of the four Elements. By these other are assigned unto them that are spiritual and perfect.
8. For the number six, which is a perfect number, in that it is made up of its own parts added together, doth agree unto perfect things. This is the reason that on the sixth day God finished the heavens and the earth, AND ALL THE HOST OF THEM; and furthermore, being come in the fulness of time, in the sixth age, on the sixth day, at the sixth hour, He redeemed the sons of men. This number, I say, then, is perfect, because it is made up exactly, if one count it in the order of its parts. Fore when we add one, two, and three, the number six is fulfilled. For it is divided into three parts, to wit, one-sixth, one-third, and a half, that is, one, two, and three. the number nine also doth fit with spiritual things, because there are nine orders of angels, which according to the prophet are signified by nine kinds of precious stones.
9. Wherefore there are in all fifteen ornaments of the Bishop; and these by their number do signify fifteen degrees of virtues, which the Psalmist did mark out by as many Songs of Degrees. For the Priestly Vestments do mean virtues, wherewith Priests ought to be adorned: according unto that of the Prophet, LET THY PRIESTS BE CLOTHED WITH RIGHTEOUSNESS, AND LET THY SAINTS SING WITH JOYFULNESS. And they are called talares, that is, reaching unto the feet, because the foot is the end of the body; by which it is set forth that to begin a good work sufficeth not, save thou give attention to fulfil it with perseverance even unto the end; but of this more in the chapter of the Tunic.
Thou seest, then, how that our Bishop putteth on more than eight vestments; whereas Aaron had but eight, which have their counterparts to-day; and this is to say that our RIGHTEOUSNESS MUST EXCEED THE RIGHTEOUSNESS OF THE SCRIBES AND PHARISEES, if we would ENTER INTO THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN. On the other hand it may also be said that our Bishop hath eight from head to feet, if we except the ornaments of his feet and hands; to wit, the Amice, the Albe, the Girdle, the Stole, the two Tunics, the Chasuble, and the Pall. For the vesting of the feet doth the rather pertain unto our Pontiff than unto Aaron, since unto the former it hath been said, GO YE AND TEACH ALL NATIONS.
Lastly, beside the foregoing Vestments appointed unto Holy Orders and Ministers, there remaineth yet another Vestment of linen, called the Surplice, which those ought to wear over their common dress, who have time that they can give to any of the services of the Altar and Sanctuary; as shall be shown in the following chapter.
10. The Surplice, by reason that it is white, doth point out the cleanness and purity of chastity; as it is written, LET THY GARMENTS BE ALWAYS WHITE.
11. And on account of its name it is a figure of the mortification of the flesh, being called superpellicium, surplice, because of old it was wont to be worn super pellicias tunicas, over tunics of skin, made of the hide of dead animals; which thing is observed in some churches to this day, and figureth how Adam was clad in such skins after his fall.
In the third place it denoteth innocence; and therefore is it often put on before all other sacred Vestments, because they that are appointed unto the ministry of Divine worship ought to count innocency of life the first of all acts of virtue; according unto that of the Psalmist, THE INNOCENT AND JUST HAVE CLOVEN UNTO ME.
12. In the fourth place, by its fulness, it doth meetly express charity, wherefore it is put on over profane and common garments, to mark that CHARITY COVERETH THE MULTITUDE OF SINS. Lastly by its shape - for it is wrought in the form of a cross - it representeth our Lord's Passion, and that they who wear it ought to crucify the flesh, with its vices and lusts.
13. In some places surplices are made of linen chrisoms, which are put upon infants baptised; after the example of Moses, who of the purple and fine linen and other things offered of the people in the Tabernacle, did make garments for Aaron and his sons to put on, when they ministered in the sanctuary.
There is moreover another Vestment, which is called the Pluvial or Cope. This is believed to have been borrowed from the Tunic of the Law; wherefore, as that was ornamented with little bells, so is this embroidered with fringes, which are labours and cares of this world. An hood also it hath, which is heavenly delight; and it is long, reaching unto the feet, which signifieth perseverence to the end. In the forepart it is open, to denote that unto holy livers eternal life is open, and that their own life ought to be an open ensample unto others. And further, by the Cope we understand the glorious immortality of our bodies: wherefore we wear it not, save on the greater Feasts; having respect unto the Resurrection to come, when the elect, laying aside the flesh, shall receive two garments, rest of soul and body's glory. This Vestment also, as well beseemeth, is ample within, nor it joined but by one necessary fastening; because the body, rendered spiritual, shall in that day by no narrowness cloke up the soul. And it is provided with a fringe, because nought shall then be lacking unto our own perfection, but that which WE NOW KNOW IN PART WE SHALL THEN KNOW EVEN AS ALSO WE ARE KNOWN.
14. But certain heretics do vainly talk, affirming that this can nowhere be found in the New Testament, that Christ or His disciples did put on Vestments foregoing; rashly censuring us for that we adorn ourselves with such things, when as Saint John saith, THE LORD RISING FROM SUPPER LAID ASIDE HIS GARMENTS, and did after take unto Him none save only His own; yet that we do put on many other than those we ordinarily wear, in the Mass, wherein we follow that very Feast; whereas the Lord hath bidden us beware of them that love to walk in long garments, saying, BEWARE OF THE SCRIBES, WHICH DESIRE TO WALK IN LONG ROBES. They say, too, that we do this to appear more righteous and better than the people, in despite of that which is said, YE ARE THEY WHICH JUSTIFY YOURSELVES BEFORE MEN; BUT GOD KNOWETH YOUR HEARTS: FOR THAT WHICH IS HIGHLY ESTEEMED AMONG MEN IS ABOMINATION IN THE SIGHT OF GOD.
But their error is most plainly confounded by that which goeth before. For in Ezechiel also we read, in the forty-second and forty-fourth chapters, WHEN THEY SHALL ENTER INTO MY SANCTUARY, AND SHALL COME NEAR TO MY TABLE, TO MINISTER UNTO ME, AND TO KEEP MY CHARGE, THEY SHALL BE CLOTHED WITH LINEN GARMENTS, AND NO WOOL SHALL COME UPON THEM, AND WHEN THEY GO FORTH INTO THE UTTER COURT OF THE PEOPLE, THEY SHALL PUT OFF THEIR GARMENTS WHEREIN THEY MINISTERED: AND THEY SHALL NOT SANCTIFY THE PEOPLE WITH THEIR GARMENTS.
15. Mark, furthermore, that the doorkeepers, readers, exorcists, and acolyths wear white vestments, that is to say, Surplice, Amice, Albe, and Girdle, that in the cleanness of their purity they may imitate the angels which are the ministers of God, and may company with them as it were in the white robe of a body made spiritual and glorious, Therefore do they wear vestments of linen, rather than any other; for as flax is not brought unto whiteness save by much toil, so it needeth to pass through many tribulations, if thou wouldst win the glory of the Kingdom.
16. By the Council of Mayence it hath been appointed that the Bishop, at his ordination, should receive a Stole, a Staff, and a Ring; the Priest, a Stole and a Chasuble; the Deacon, a Stole and a Dalmatic, and the Subdeacon a Paten and Chalice; which all, if they be degraded, must render up. And by the Council of Toledo it hath been ruled that the Deacon shall wear 'the white Vestment' - that is, the Dalmatic - only at the time of the Offering, wherein he readeth the Gospel.
17. Also it is to be observed, that the Vestments of the Priest of the Gospel have certain meanings in regard of the Head, which is Christ, and certain in regard of the members, albeit both the Head and Members be called by the Priestly name; as saith the Psalmist unto the Head, THOU ART A PRIEST FOR EVER AFTER THE ORDER OF MELCHISEDECH; and to the members saith the Apostle, YE ARE A CHOSEN GENERATION, A ROYAL PRIESTHOOD. Therefore their mystic meanings are to be expounded, first, as touching that which agreeth unto the members, secondly as touching that which agreeth unto the Head, which is Christ. And after this manner I shall distinguish in every chapter.
18. The six Vestments, then, which be common to both Bishop and Priest, are these:
The Zone, or Girdle.
And the nine which be peculiar to the Bishop are these:
The Pastoral Staff.
Of all the which in turn we will go on to speak, as also of the Napkin, the Pall, and of the Colours which the Church useth in her Vestments; and also of the Vestments of the Law, or of the Old Testament.
OF THE AMICE
1. First I must speak of the six Vestments belonging to both Bishop and Priest, according to the foregoing.
The Priest or Bishop who is about to celebrate, having washed his hands, taketh the Amice, and covereth his head with it; and this he hath in the stead of the Ephod or Superhumeral, or of the Breastplate of Judgment; nay, even now it may be called the Superhumeral. This signifieth salvation, which is granted through faith; whereof also the Apostle speaketh, saying unto the Ephesians, PUT ON THE HELMET OF SALVATION. It figureth also chastity of heart and body, because it goeth round his reins and breast, and covereth them; and though it be put on beneath all other sacred Vestments, yet it is supreme over all, for that chastity ought both to dwell within the heart, and in practice to shine out abroad. Wherefore it is drawn tight over the reins, for there desire doth hold his chief sway. Moreover, by the Amice is signified that a man should be strong in good works, for it spreadeth over the shoulders every way: and it is the shoulders that be strong unto the carrying-out of labour, even as the patriarch Jacob saith, HE BOWED HIS SHOULDER TO BEAR, AND BECAME A SERVANT UNTO TRIBUTE.
There be two strings wherewith the Amice is tied across the breast; these are the intention wherewith, and the end whereunto, our works must be informed, that they be not done in the leaven of malice and wickedness, but in the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth. Thus ought not the Priest to live in idleness, but to labour in good works, according to that of the Apostle unto Timothy, LABOUR AS A GOOD SOLDIER OF JESUS CHRIST. In certain places a praiseworthy custom holdeth, that a white shift of linen, or a surplice, should be put on over the common dress before the Amice, whereby faith is understood, which ought to be had before all things. Again, the Amice goeth round the mouth of the Chasuble; but of this I will treat in the chapter of the Chasuble.
2. The Amice is drawn tightly round the neck: and by this is symbolised the subjection of the voice, for the neck, wherein is the voice, doth express the act of speaking; it is therefore held bound, as it were, lest falsehood pass unto the tongue therefrom. Yet over the breast and throat it is drawn but loosely, as shall be expounded in the chapter of the Girdle. With the Amice also we cover the head, lest, if we cast the eyes freely every way, we should ponder unlawful things. And the breast and heart are covered with it, for the mind of the Priest ought to be intent on those things which lie upon him; nor may he in that hour relax his heart unto vanities, or to the unrestrained meditation of any worldly thing.
3. Further, as touching that which agreeth unto the head, even Christ, the Amice, which overshadoweth the Priest's head, doth represent that which is described in the Apocalypse, AND I SAW A MIGHTY ANGEL COME DOWN FROM HEAVEN, CLOTHED WITH A CLOUD; and in Esaias, BEHOLD, THE LORD RIDETH UPON A SWIFT CLOUD. And the world's Saviour, the Son of God, the Angel of Great Counsel, coming to save the world, was veiled as with a cloud, when he hid away His Godhead in Flesh. For THE HEAD OF EVERY MAN IS CHRIST; AND THE HEAD OF CHRIST IS GOD.
The Priest's Amice, then, doth symbolise this hiding in flash; but it is more particularly set forth by that Veil which the Holy Father draweth over his head, and of which I will speak in the chapter of the Undergirdle. And it is a comely thought that this very thing, which is typified by the shoes of the feet, is also expressed by the veiling of the head - namely, they lying-hid of the Godhead in Flesh, and Its revelation through it. For when HE WAS KNOWN IN JEWRY, AND HIS NAME WAS GREAT IN ISRAEL; then OVER EDOM DID HE CAST OUT HIS SHOE, and HIS RIGHTEOUSNESS DID HE OPENLY SHOW IN THE SIGHT OF THE HEATHEN.
The Amice doth also represent the fold wherewith the Jews veiled the Face of Christ, saying in the twenty-sixth chapter of Matthew, PROPHECY UNTO US, THOU CHRIST, WHO IS HE THAT SMOTE THEE?
OF THE ALBE
1. After the Amice the Priest putteth on him a shift called the Albe; and this, being exactly fitted to all the limbs of the body, doth show that there must be nought of excess or looseness in the life of the Priest, or in his members. By its whiteness it doth represent purity; for it is written, LET THY GARMENTS BE ALWAYS WHITE; and it is made of byssus, or fine linen, for it is written that FINE LINEN IS THE RIGHTEOUSNESS OF SAINTS.
2. Now byssus is Egyptian linen. And even as linen, or byssus, doth win by cunning, being beaten with many blows, that whiteness which by nature it hath not; so also man's flesh, being lashed with many stripes in the exercise of good works, hath by grace that pureness allotted unto it which by nature it cannot have. The Priest therefore, according unto the Apostle, must BUFFET HIS BODY, AND BRING IT INTO SUBJECTION, LEST THAT BY ANY MEANS, WHEN HE HATH PREACHED TO OTHERS, HIMSELF SHOULD BE A CASTAWAY.
3. The Albe hath also a hood, the profession of chastity; and a lappet, signifying the Priestly tongue, which bindeth the froward, and looseth the penitent. Again, this Vestment, which in the ancient Priesthood was called a linen coat, and in Greek ??????, or the garment which reacheth unto the feet, is said of old to have been closely-fitting, which pointeth unto the Jews' SPIRIT OF BONDAGE TO FEAR. But in the new Priesthood it is ample, according to the spirit of adoption, in that LIBERTY WHEREWITH CHRIST HATH MADE US FREE. It hath also golden broidery and devices for ornament which with varied work in divers parts, which hinteth of that which the Prophet saith in the Psalms, UPON THY RIGHT HAND DID STAND THE QUEEN IN A VESTURE OF GOLD, WROUGHT ABOUT WITH DIVERS COLOURS.
4. The Albe is also drawn tight with a girdle, and this meaneth the strangling of all carnal pleasure, as the Lord saith, LET YOUR LOINS BE GIRT.
5. And the sleeves of the Albe, as also of the Tunicle, ought to be tight enow, not too loose, lest they slip away and leave the arms bare; and having apparels at the edges, representing the golden bracelets which by a miracle did enclose in seemly wise the bare arms of Saint Martin while he celebrated Mass. By the Albe also, which covereth the body from above downwards, is typified that hope which cometh unto the Church from above through grace, and through her own merits below. Of this the Apostle saith, WE ARE SAVED BY HOPE. And in that it reacheth unto the feet, it pointeth to perseverance, as was mentioned near the end of the Proeme of this Book.
6. But as touching that which agreeth unto Christ, Which is the Head, the Albe being a linen Vestment, and widely differing from the clokes made of the skins of dead animals, wherewith Adam was clad after his fall, doth picture that newness of life which Christ both had and taught, and doth give in Baptism unto us. And concerning this the Apostle saith, PUT OFF THE OLD MAN WITH HIS DEEDS, AND PUT ON THE NEW MAN, WHICH IS CREATED AFTER GOD. For in the Transfiguration HIS FACE DID SHINE AS THE SUN, AND HIS RAIMENT WAS WHITE AS SNOW; nay, the garments of Christ were ever white and clean, forasmuch as HE DID NO SIN, NEITHER WAS GUILE FOUND IN HIS MOUTH.
This Vestment representeth also the white robe, which Herod put on Christ to mock him.
OF THE ZONE, OR GIRDLE
1. Now the Albe must be girded around the loins of the Priest or Bishop with a Zone or Girdle, called in the Law and by the Greeks balteus, lest it flow down and hinder his steps; that no motives may provoke him to relax his chasteness, whereof the Albe is a type. For the Girdle doth signify continence, as it is written, LET YOUR LOINS BE GIRDED ABOUT, AND YOUR LAMPS BURNING IN YOUR HANDS; for that in the loins lust reigneth, as the Lord sheweth, speaking of the devil, HIS STRENGTH IS IN HIS LOINS, AND HIS FORCE IS IN THE NAVEL OF HIS BELLY.
2. On the left side of the Bishop there hangeth down from the Girdle a two-fold Undergirdle, because there be two things whereby Chastity is made strong, and without which it is hardly preserved, to wit, Prayer and Fasting. Thus the Lord saith, THIS KIND GOETH NOT OUT, BUT BY PRAYER AND FASTING.
3. With Continence, therefore, ought the loins to be girded, and under-girded with Abstinence; wherefore the Apostle, STAND HAVING YOUR LOINS GIRT ABOUT WITH TRUTH. But the Undergirdle, which is called otherwise Perizona or Succingulum, was not found among the Vestments of the Law. For though the Priests of the Law, being girded, must not come at their wives in the time of sacrifice, yet at other times they were free in this matter. But nowadays one girdle is added, for the ministers of to-day must needs have continence, and therefore they must be not only girded, but also under-girded.
4. Wherefore the Undergirdle is twofold, to denote a two-fold chastity: namely, of the mind, as the Girdle, and of the body, as the Undergirdle signifieth. And this latter hangeth, as I have said, from the left side; for as the right is mightier than the left, so is chastity of mind more potent than chastity of body. Wherefore Saint Gregory saith, 'We gird our loins, when we restrain the lust of the flesh through continence.
5. The Girdle doth also fitly designate temperance. (Of the Undergirdle I have spoken also in the Proeme of this Book.) And mark that (as hath been already said) the breast and throat are but loosely held bound by the Amice, because their motions are not under our power. Elias did sooner shut up heaven when he prayed that it might not rain, than his own wrath, when he desired vengeance for the death of the prophets. The tongue, too, dwelleth in moisture and dampness, and is made easily to slip, even as the Prince of the Apostles did at the word of a damsel deny his Master. But by the Girdle the reins are bound strongly and tightly, that we may buffet the body and bring it into servitude, and may bridle the motions of lust.
6. As touching that which agreeth unto the Head, even Christ, the priestly Girdle is a figure of that whereof the Apostle John speaketh: AND I TURNED, AND SAW ONE LIKE UNTO THE SON OF MAN, GIRT ABOUT THE PAPS WITH A GOLDEN GIRDLE. By a 'golden girdle' is intended the perfect love of Christ, called by the Apostle the LOVE OF CHRIST WHICH PASSETH KNOWLEDGE, burning within the heart, and shining forth in works. And its Undergirdle doth represent that which Esaias did prophecy, speaking of Christ, AND RIGHTEOUSNESS SHALL BE THE GIRDLE OF HIS LOINS, AND FAITHFULNESS THE GIRDLE OF HIS REINS. For again, THE RIGHTEOUS LORD LOVETH RIGHTEOUSNESS: HIS COUNTENANCE WILL BEHOLD THE THING THAT IS JUST. And, THE LORD IS RIGHTEOUS IN ALL HIS WORKS. The two ends of it are the two natural precepts of the righteousness which Christ wrought and taught, to wit, 'Do not unto others as ye would not have them do unto you, but as ye would that men should do unto you, do ye also unto them.' It doth therefore represent Righteousness, having two arms joined tightly together, that is, to refuse evil and to do good.
The Girdle signifieth also the scourge, with which Pilate did scourge Jesus.
OF THE STOLE
1. After the Girdle the Priest doth put upon his neck the Orarium, or Stole, which is a type of the light yoke of Christ, or of the yoke of His precepts, to show that he hath taken the Lord's yoke upon him. This he doth kiss in putting it on and off, to mark the consent and desire wherewith he submitteth himself to that yoke. And it falleth down from the neck before, adorning both the right side and the left; for BY THE ARMOUR OF RIGHTEOUSNESS ON THE RIGHT HAND AND ON THE LEFT, that is, in weal and woe, the Priest ought to be armed, that he be neither broken by misfortunes nor lifted up by well-being. Wherefore when the Priest receiveth the Stole in Holy Order, the Bishop saith unto him, 'Receive the yoke of God, FOR HIS YOKE IS SWEET, AND HIS BURTHEN IS LIGHT;' that is, sweet in well-being, and in misfortune light.
2. The Stole reacheth down to the knees, which are bent by us as showing that we must be humble and gentle of heart. It signifieth also patience, whereof it is written, YE HAVE NEED OF PATIENCE, THAT YE MIGHT RECEIVE THE PROMISE; and again, IN YOUR PATIENCE YE SHALL POSSESS YOUR SOULS. Hence it ariseth that the Stole is tied in certain knots on the right and on the left, with the Zone or Girdle, for virtue doth company with virtue and succoreth it, lest by some impulse temptation be stirred up; which showeth also that both in things good and in things evil the yoke of Christ ought patiently to be borne, in the bond of charity. But unto the foregoing some Bishops do add these words, 'May the Lord clothe thee with the Stole of innocence'; and this hath respect unto the Stole in its olden shape, which was typical of innocence.
3. Again, the Stole is crossed over from the left shoulder of the Priest unto his right side, while he is ordained, for obedience, taking its beginning from the active life through the love of his neighbour, doth pass over into the contemplative life through the love of God. The length of the Stole meaneth perseverance, and its two ends hanging down are prudence and temperance; thus the Apostle saith unto Titus, LET US LIVE SOBERLY, RIGHTEOUSLY, AND GODLY, IN THIS PRESENT WORLD. But according to a decree of the Council of Braga, the Priest ought with one and the same Stole, disposing it equally round his neck and both his shoulders, to trace and make ready on his breast the sign of the Cross, as one who is bidden to live between good and evil fortunes, yet is not dismayed; that men may ever mark him surrounded with the adornment of virtue upon either shoulder. And whoso shall do otherwise, saith the decree, he shall be duly liable to excommunication. Unless indeed one might deem this decree to have been repealed by the general custom of the Church to the contrary; for it is not everywhere that the two arms of the Stole are thus disposed upon the breast in the form of the cross. He beareth, then, the Cross on his breast, the while in his heart he taketh pattern by the Passion of Christ, Whose servant he is.
4. The Stole, as I have said, is at once a yoke and a burthen. It is a yoke, that is, unto the Priest, and a burthen unto the Deacon; and by reason of this the Priest weareth it around his neck, but the Deacon over his left shoulder. For on the neck a yoke is work, but a burthen is carried on the shoulder. And if thou read in Leviticus, thou wilt see that the Levites only were appointed unto the bearing of the burthens. Unto the Deacon the Stole signifieth also a yoke, as I have shewn in another Book. And it is placed upon his left shoulder, because it is meet that temporal things should be subject unto things spiritual; or else because it behoveth the right shoulder of the Deacon to be unencumbered, to the end that he may go hither and thither the more freely in the service of the Priest; whereof also I have already treated, in that place aforesaid.
5. It is girt round at the loins, that the Priest may be strong and active against the onslaughts of lust. But sometimes its forepart is folded over the left arm only; and this is drawn from the Priests of the Law, who while they sacrificed used to turn back the ends of the girdle over their shoulders. But upon the Bishop or Priest it falleth down before on either side evenly, because Christ, Whose likeness they bear, and Who kept an even mind in weal and woe - which are denoted by left and right - did desire to lead the dwellers of the earth unto heavenly things, and did ever bear this thought before the eyes of His mind.
6. The Stole is also called Orarium, the Praying-Vestment; because, whereas it is lawful to baptise, to confirm, and to do many other things which stand in prayer, without the other vestments, yet without the Stole it is lawful to do none of these things, save when driven by urgent need. At the Council of Tribur it was appointed that Priests should not walk, save when vested with the Stole.
It is to be noted, that the Stole was originally a white garment flowing down to the feet, such as the Patriarchs wore before the Law. This was put on by firstborn sons when they received their father's blessing; on which occasions they offered victims unto God, as though they had been Priests. But when the Albe began to be worn, the Stole was altered into the form of a collar. For by the first Stole was understood innocence, which was the estate of the first man. But when he lost his innocence through sin, it needed that he should recover it as it were through the Fatted Calf. It remaineth, then, that we, who fell through disobedience, should by obedience rise up again; wherefore we do rightly bow our necks unto the collar of obedience, that we may win back the robe of innocence. For by the Stole which now we wear, we do accept the obedience of the Gospel of the Crucified.
7. As touching that which agreeth unto the Head, even Christ, the Stole, as lying over the Amice on the Priest's neck, doth signify that obedience and servitude which the Lord of all things underwent in order to the salvation of His own. For He, BEING IN THE FORM OF A GOD, THOUGHT IT NOT ROBBERY TO BE EQUAL WITH GOD; BUT MADE HIMSELF OF NO REPUTATION, AND TOOK UPON HIM THE FORM OF A SERVANT, AND BECAME OBEDIENT UNTO DEATH, EVEN THE DEATH OF THE CROSS. Yet did He neither inherit originally, nor commit actually, aught worthy of death.
The Stole is also a figure of the band, wherewith Jesus was tied to the column.
8. It hath been appointed in the Canons, that Subdeacons, Readers, and Singing-Men may not wear Stoles.
OF THE MANIPLE
1. Forasmuch as there is a weariness which often creepeth upon minds well disposed and had in hand for Divine Worship, rendering them slumbrous with a kind of sluggishness, as saith the Psalmist, MY SOUL MELTETH AWAY FOR VERY HEAVINESS; therefore in the left hand of the minister who approacheth unto the service of the Altar is placed a Maniple, which is also called a Sudarium; as that he may wipe away the sweats of his mind and shake off his heart's heaviness, keeping the watch of good works and driving weariness and slumber from him. For the Maniple is a figure of good works and watchfulness, whereof the Lord saith, WATCH, FOR YE KNOW NOT THE HOUR WHEREIN THE SON OF MAN COMETH; and the Spouse in the Canticles, I SLEEP, BUT MINE HEART WAKETH. As a Sudarium it also denoteth penitence, wherewith the stain of daily indulgence and the weariness of worldly life are wiped away; as it is said, MY SOUL MELTETH AWAY FOR VERY HEAVINESS; for the knowledge of sins, and the weakness of the flesh, are a weariness unto the soul.
The Maniple signifieth also the reward of future blessings. Thus in certain places they wear this Vestment, whose name signifieth also a sheaf, on Festivals whensoever Albes are used, to show that in life each one shall receive his due reward; for THEY SHALL COME AGAIN WITH JOY, BRINGING THEIR SHEAVES WITH THEM.
The Sudarium of the Subdeacon is made greater than that of the Priest, for where there is greater transgression, there is required more fruit of repentance. But of the Sudarium I will speak again.
2. The Ministers wear the maniple upon the left arm, to show that they must be bound up as touching earthly things, but untrammeled unto heavenly. They of old were not thus bound, for they served God, not only for spiritual, but also for temporal ends. But we in this life, whereof the left hand is a type, do undergo the irksomeness as it were of much sweating, that is, of pleasure, and other excesses of the mind. The Maniple, hanging upon the left arm, denoteth also the faith, which in this life we must have.
3. The use of the Maniple was not taken from Aaron, but from the ancient Fathers of the Church; as it is written in the Martyrology of Bede, that Arsenius did ever a kerchief in his bosom or his hand, to wipe away the abundance of his tears. the holy Fathers also, while they handled the sacred things and celebrated the Sacraments, had little napkins or handkerchiefs on their hands, sometimes to wipe their hands, and sometimes for covering or reverently handling the things of God.
4. As touching that which agreeth unto the Head, even Christ, the wearing of the Maniple on the left hand denoteth this, that Christ won His Prize while in the way; for, as I have said, the Maniple signifieth a prize, as in that Scripture, THEY SHALL COME AGAIN WITH JOY, BRINGING THEIR SHEAVES WITH THEM; and the left hand is this present life, as it is written, HIS LEFT HAND IS UNDER MY HEAD, AND HIS RIGHT HAND DOTH EMBRACE ME. For Christ did enjoy His reward at one and the same time that He was earning it; He enjoyed it in His own land, and did merit it on His way thither, compassing His prize the while He ran his course, in that He was at once in His native land and on the way to it: as he said, NO MAN HATH ASCENDED UP TO HEAVEN, BUT HE THAT CAME DOWN FROM HEAVEN, EVEN THE SON OF MAN WHICH IS IN HEAVEN.
5. The Maniple is also a figure of the rope with which Jesus was bound, after that He was taken by the Jews, as saith Saint John, THEY TOOK HIM, AND BOUND HIM.
This vestment is wont to be put upon the Holy Father after the Chasuble, and there be many Bishops beside, who observe this.
6. It is to be noted, that the Deacon and Subdeacon, in assisting the Bishop to put on the Sacred Vestments, wear not the Maniple; first, that they may do their parts with the more ease and freedom; and secondly because in the discharge of such a duty they ought not to look for temporal guerdon; which latter is one of the meanings of the Maniple, as I have shown from that of the Psalmist, THAY SHALL COME AGAIN WITH JOY, BRINGING THEIR SHEAVES WITH THEM. And while the Bishop putteth the Vestments on and off, the Deacon standeth at his right, and the Subdeacon at his left; for the Deacon, by virtue of his Order, taketh that mightier and higher place than the Subdeacon, which is signified by the right hand.
OF THE CHASUBLE
1. Lastly, over all the Vestments the Priest putteth on the Chasuble, which is being interpreted a 'little cottage'. It is called by the Greeks the planet, from plane, a wandering, for that its border wandereth wide as it is raised over the arms, signifying charity, without which the Priest is as a SOUNDING BRASS, OR AS A TINKLING CYMBAL. For as charity covereth THE MULTITUDE OF SINS, and containeth all the commandments of the Law and the Prophets, and is called by the Apostle, THE FULFILLING OF THE LAW; so also this Vestment wandereth over all, and doth enclose and contain all other Vestments within itself.
2. Of charity also the Apostle saith, YET SHOW I UNTO YOU A MORE EXCELLENT WAY. THOUGH I SPEAK WITH THE TONGUES OF MEN AND OF ANGELS, AND HAVE NOT CHARITY, I AM NOTHING. And again, THOUGH I HAVE ALL FAITH, SO THAT I COULD REMOVE MOUNTAINS, AND HAVE NOT CHARITY, I AM NOTHING. The Chasuble, moreover, is the wedding-garment spoken of by the Lord in the Gospel, FRIEND, HOW CAMEST THOU IN HITHER, NOT HAVING ON A WEDDING-GARMENT? Without this, the Priest may never discharge his office, for it beseemeth him ever to abide in the bond of charity.
The Amice goeth round the mouth of the Chasuble, which meaneth that good works ought always to have charity for their source and end. For THE END OF THE COMMANDMENT IS CHARITY OF A PURE HEART, AND OF A GOOD CONSCIENCE, AND OF FAITH UNFEIGNED. And the dividing of the Chasuble into two parts, hack and fore, signifieth the two arms of charity, wherewith it reacheth unto God, and to thy neighbour, as in that scripture, THOU SHALT LOVE THE LORD THY GOD, AND THY NEIGHBOUR AS THYSELF; ON THESE TWO COMMANDMENTS HANG ALL THE LAW AND THE PROPHETS. Again, the wideness of the Chasuble is a figure of the breadth of charity, which reacheth even as far as our enemies; whence it is written, THY COMMANDMENT IS EXCEEDING BROAD.
3. The Chasuble hath two folds, right and left; these be the two precepts of charity, the love of God, and the love of his neighbour. Also it is folded double across the breast, which meaneth the heart, and between the shoulders, which are good works; in these parts, I say, the Chasuble is made to double upon itself, for if we ought so to show good deeds unto our neighbour outwardly, that we may keep the same within, whole in the heart before God. For we need to have charity in our heart, and in our work; both within and without. It is doubled before the breast, again, because by charity are gotten goodwill and holy thought; and between the shoulders, because by charity are borne untoward dealings of neighbours and adversaries. And it is lifted up at the arms, as when we work the good works of love: at the right arm, as when we DO GOOD UNTO THEM WHO ARE OF THE HOUSEHOLD OF FAITH; and at the left, as when our righteous dealings reach even unto our enemies.
4. Furthermore, over the arms it maketh three folds; on the right arm, as when we succor the faithful, monks, clergy, and laity; and on the left, as when we minister to the needs of unbelievers, that is, bad Christians, Jews, and paynim. For well are works of righteousness symbolised by the Chasuble, according unto this scripture, LET THY PRIESTS BE CLOTHED WITH RIGHTEOUSNESS. The Priest may not put off his Chasuble while he performeth his office; for the Lord commandeth in the twenty-first chapter of Leviticus, that HE SHALL NOT GO OUT OF THE SANCTUARY, that is, out of holy things or commandments.
Further, as touching that which agreeth unto the Head, even Christ, the Chasuble of the Great Priest is the Catholic Church, concerning which the Apostle saith, AS MANY OF YOU AS HAVE BEEN BAPTISED INTO CHRIST HAVE PUT ON CHRIST. This is that Vestment of Aaron, unto whose skirt the ointment ran down: IT RAN DOWN FROM HIS HEAD UNTO HIS BEARD, AND FROM HIS BEARD UNTO THE SKIRTS OF HIS CLOTHING IT RAN DOWN. For OF THE FULNESS OF HIS SPIRIT HAVE WE ALL RECEIVED, first the Apostles, then they that are come after them.
5. The Chasuble is of one piece, and whole, and is hemmed on every side, which signifieth the unity and wholeness of the Faith. Yet when the Priest spreadeth out his hands, it is in a manner divided in two parts, back and fore; and this denoteth the ancient Church, which went before the Passion of Christ, and the new, which followeth it; for THE MULTITUDES THAT WENT BEFORE, AND THAT FOLLOWED, CRIED, SAYING, HOSANNA TO THE SON OF DAVID: BLESSED IS HE THAT COMETH IN THE NAME OF THE LORD.
This Vestment representeth also the purple robe with which the soldiers encompassed Christ, as saith John in the nineteenth chapter.
OF THE BUSKINS AND SANDALS
1. In the foregoing we have spoken of the six Vestments common to both Bishops and Priests. It now remaineth to treat of the nine that are peculiar to the Bishop. And first let us consider the Buskins and Sandals.
The vesting of the feet taketh not its beginning from Aaron's line of Priests, for they lived in Jewry, and therefore had no need thereof; but from the Apostles, unto whom it was said, GO YE AND TEACH ALL NATIONS. Unless indeed one might say that the Buskins and Sandals take the place of the breeches of the ancient Priest.
2. The Bishop, then, being about to celebrate, while the five appointed Psalms are said, putteth on the Buskins and Sandals, the PREPARATION OF THE GOSPEL OF PEACE. These are they which for beauty the Prophet did laud, saying, HOW BEAUTIFUL ARE THE FEET OF THEM THAT BRING GOOD TIDINGS OF PEACE, THAT PUBLISH GOOD TIDINGS OF GOOD! and the Apostle, saying unto the Ephesians, HAVING YOUR FEET SHOD WITH THE PREPARATION OF THE GOSPEL OF PEACE. And in the Gospel we read that the Lord sent His disciples forth shod with sandals - shod indeed, that is, with the PREPARATION OF THE GOSPEL OF PEACE; for if they had not been thus shod, how could they have trodden upon serpents and scorpions?
3. Let Bishops take thought, therefore, why they are thus shod, and let them copy the example of those, whose sandals they copy. For the feet are a fit type of the affections; wherefore they ought to have sandals, so to speak, upon their affections and desires, that they be not stained with the dust of things earthly or temporal.
4. But before the Sandals are put on the feet, they are clad in Buskins, reaching so far as the knee and there girt round, for that the preacher ought to MAKE STRAIGHT PATHS FOR HIS FEET, AND CONFIRM THE FEEBLE KNEES; for HE THAT SHALL DO AND TEACH THESE COMMANDMENTS, THE SAME SHALL BE CALLED THE GREATEST IN THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN. And the Buskins, being of blue, the colour of the firmament, denote that his feet - that is, his affections - must be heavenly, and strong, that he halt not; but that he may SAY TO THEM THAT ARE OF A FEARFUL HEART, BE STRONG.
5. After these, his feet are vested in the Sandals, which are so called from the plant of that name, or from sandarach, wherewith they are coloured. Now these have an entire sole underneath, but on top there is latticed hide; because the steps of the Preacher ought to be guarded from beneath, lest they be defiled with earthly things, as saith the Lord, SHAKE OFF THE DUST OF YOUR FEET; but they must be open above, that they may be unveiled unto the knowledge of heavenly mysteries, according unto that of the Psalmist, OPEN THOU MINE EYES, THAT I MAY SEE THE WONDROUS THINGS OF THE LAW. They are open on the top, again, because we ought to have hearts ever uplifted unto God, and our minds' eyes open unto those things which be above: and solid beneath, because we must keep a mind impervious amid earthly things, and seek the blessing, not of Esau, which is earthly, but of Jacob, which is in the heavens.
6. The Sandals again, being open in certain places and closed in others, signify that the preaching of the Gospel ought neither to be revealed unto all, nor hid from all, as it is written, UNTO YOU IT IS GIVEN TO KNOW THE MYSTERIES OF THE KINGDOM OF GOD, BUT UNTO OTHERS IN PARABLES. And GIVE NOT THAT WHICH IS HOLY UNTO THE DOGS, NEITHER CAST YE YOUR PEARLS BEFORE SWINE.
7. The inner part of the Sandals is sometimes made of white leather, for it needeth to have a clean intention, and a conscience pure before God; and without there is a dark appearance, because the life of the preacher seemeth dark and mean in worldly eyes, by reason of the trials of this world. Sometimes too they are red, to signify the spirit of martyrdom; and at other times they are variegated with divers colours, the manifold virtues wherewith we need to be adorned.
8. A latchet, which is separate from the leather, goeth up over the foot, and figureth the tongues of those who bear good testimony unto the preacher, but who are nevertheless separate in a manner from the conversation of spiritual men. In the second place, this latchet is itself the tongue of the spiritual, which did induct the preacher into the office of preaching. Thirdly, it denoteth also the tongue of the preacher himself. The line which runneth from this latchet through the midst of the Sandal unto the end thereof, is Evangelical perfection; and the lines which come forth from either side, and which at the end of the Sandal run into the middle line and there have an end, are a figure of the Law and the Prophets, which be ratified in the Gospel, and there find the end of their being. The upper part of the Sandal, into which the foot is placed, is joined together with divers strings, that its two sides slip not away nor be parted, coming unfastened the one from the other; and this is to show that the Preacher ought to bind himself with divers virtues, or truths of Scripture, that his inner part may not be disjoined from that which shineth without, in the sight of the Most High. Also the very fastening of the Sandals signifieth that the prelate, who hath to go hither and thither, ought to make sure his mind's steps, the while he goeth to and fro amid the throng.
9. The drawing of the thongs this way and that with the hands, in binding and making fast the Sandals, signifieth that the Priest ought to walk with so firm a step, that he may be a burthen unto none nor faint in the way of his ministry. For it is in vain if he run fast who fainteth or ever he reacheth the goal; inasmuch as the Sandals do mystically represent the race of the Preacher. But sometimes they are not fastened, for that Christ's Incarnation is in some measure open unto human understanding, as we may understand the being wrapt in garments, or placed in an enclosure. Sometimes, again, the cost of the thongs is over and above that of the Sandals, as it is written, WHATSOEVER THOU SPENDEST MORE, WHEN I COME AGAIN I WILL REPAY THEE.
It may also be said that The Buskins are a type of that washing, of which the Lord said, HE THAT IS BATHED NEEDETH NOT SAVE TO WASH HIS FEET. But, for that cleanness of heart sufficeth not without patience in persecution, they have also stripes of red, which are a type of martyrdom. Thus he that hath cleanness in his heart, and patience, an it so needeth, in his will, shall come secure unto the office of preaching, which the apostolic Sandals signify.
10. Further, as touching that which agreeth unto the Head, even Christ, the Sandals have another meaning. The Bishop, who in the service of the Altar representeth the Person of Christ his Head, Whose member he is; the while he putteth the Sandals on his feet, doth suggest the Lord putting on those Sandals of the Incarnation, whereof He saith in the Psalms, OVER EDOM WILL I CAST OUT MY SHOE, that is, 'among the nations will I make known my Incarnation.' For the Godhead came unto us as it were sandalled, that for us the Son of God might discharge the Priestly office. And by the latchets wherewith the Sandals are fastened upon the feet, we do understand that same mystery which John the Baptist saw in the sandal-strings, when he said, WHOSE SHOE'S LATCHET I AM NOT WORTHY TO UNLOOSE: that is, the unspeakable union and indissoluble bond of flesh whereby the Godhead of the Word did join itself with humanity of ours. Moreover, the feet are united with the Sandals by the mediation of the Buskins, which are worn between; and this pictureth the union of the Human Soul with the Godhead, through the mean of Flesh. For as the foot beareth up the body, even so the Godhead governeth the world. Thus the Psalmist saith, FALL DOWN BEFORE HIS FOOTSTOOL, FOR HE IS HOLY.
11. According to a decree of Gregory, Deacons may not wear 'compagni', that is, Sandals, nor 'maniples', that is, episcopal shoes, without special licence of the Apostolic See. Formerly they did wear these, because it was their duty to go hither and thither in attendance. But nowadays neither Deacons nor Priests wear these Vestments, but Bishops only, that by this diversity of their Sandals the distinction of their office may be marked; and beside, they have to go abroad amongst the people, whereas it is the duty of the Priest to offer the sacrifices of the Lord. Yet the clerics of the Roman Church, by the indulgence of Constantine, Emperor, might wear shoes with socks of white linen.
OF THE UNDERGIRDLE AND VEIL
1. As touching the Undergirdle, I will add nought further to such as I have already said in the treating of the Zone or Girdle, in the Proeme of this Book.
The Bishop of Rome after the Albe and Girdle putteth on the Orale, a Vestment of fine stuff, which after the manner of a veil he placeth upon his head, and foldeth it over his shoulders and before his breast; following the use of the Priest of the Law, who after the broidered coat and girdle did put on the ephod or superhumeral, whose place the Amice doth now take.
The aforesaid Bishop putteth on also a certain Cross, fastened to a fine chain, which he hangeth around his neck, disposing the Cross before his breast. For the High priest of the Law did wear a golden plate upon his forehead, in the stead of which this High Priest, the Bishop, doth wear the Cross upon his breast; and so the golden plate yieldeth place unto the Sign of the Cross. For the mystery which the golden plate enshrined in its Four Letters, hath been set forth in four arms by the Sign of the Cross; as saith the Apostle, THAT YE MAY BE ABLE TO COMPREHEND WITH ALL SAINTS WHAT IS THE BREADTH, AND LENGTH, AND DEPTH, AND HEIGHT. Wherefore that holy thing which he then did bear in the plate upon his brow, his successor doth now hide within his heart; for WITH THE HEART MAN BELIEVETH UNTO RIGHTEOUSNESS, AND WITH THE MOUTH CONFESSION IS MADE UNTO SALVATION. And according to Hierome, 'the Blood of the Gospel is more precious than the gold of the Law.' He placeth the Cross before his breast, again, for the shewing forth of that which the Apostle saith, GLORIFY GOD AND BEAR HIM IN YOUR BODY. And when he putteth the Cross on himself, and when he taketh it off, he kisseth it, for that he doth believe and confess Christ's Passion, whereof it is the sign, and unto whose representation in the Office of the Mass he maketh him ready.
OF THE TUNIC
1. After the Stole put on, the Bishop is arrayed in the Tunic, which is otherwise called Subtile, and in the Law, Poderes, that is, the garment which reacheth unto the feet. And this signifieth Perseverance. Thus Joseph is described as having worn such a garment amongst his brethren. For when the other virtues run in the race, Perseverance only receiveth the prize, as it is written, HE THAT PERSEVERETH UNTO THE END, THE SAME SHALL BE SAVED; and One teacheth, BE THOU FAITHFUL UNTO DEATH, AND I WILL GIVE THEE A CROWN OF LIFE. Again, he putteth on the Tunic after the Albe, because by the Albe is figured the chastening of the flesh, while the Tunic is the symbol of those inner virtues, which the perfect need alway to have. The Tunic is not girded, because by reason of its shape it hindereth not the steps: so also the virtues that are set forth by it afford a free walk in the contemplation of God. Yet is the Albe girded, as I have said in the chapter which treateth of the Girdle.
2. In the Old Testament there were two tunics, the tunic of fine linen, and the blue tunic. And at this day also certain Bishops use two Tunics, to show that it beseemeth them to have knowledge of both Testaments, that they may know how to bring out of the Lord's treasure things new and old; or that they may shew themselves that they are both Deacons and Priests. Besides, each of the Tunics doth bear his own proper signification. The white Tunic, which is of fine linen, signifieth Chastity, as may be gathered from what hath been said in the chapter of the Albe. This former Tunic, too, if it be of silk, denoteth Chastity and Humility; for silk taketh its beginning from worms, which are created without intercourse.
3. The second Tunic ought to be blue, as in olden days it was of the colour of the jacinth, which followeth in its hue the sereneness of the sky; wherefore it is a figure of the Saints with their heavenly thoughts and lives, and of celestial thought and conversation. For as that precious stone, the jacinth, doth change his colour with the changes of the sky, being bright when the firmament is bright, and pale beneath the darkling heaven; even so in spiritual figure ought the Bishop to REJOICE WITH THEM THAT DO REJOICE, AND WEEP WITH THEM THAT WEEP. Yet if the Tunic be of any other colour, it beareth accordingly some other meaning.
4. And the Bishop weareth the one Tunic beneath the other, to shew that as that which is hid may not be seen of the people, but is known to the clergy alone, so also that measure of lofty virtues pictured by it, which the perfect man ought ever to possess, may not be open to the eyes of all, but only unto the higher orders, and unto them that are perfect.
5. Furthermore, as touching that which agreeth unto the Head, even Christ, this Vestment in the ancient Priesthood was of blue, and had for its fringe pomegranates and golden bells hanging from its lower hem, that the High Priest might walk in all music; as shall be said in the chapter of the Vestments of the Law. And this giveth an hint of the heavenly doctrine of the Christ, Whereof all have taken knowledge; unto Whom it was said by the Prophet, O THOU WHO TELLEST GOOD TIDINGS TO SION, GET THEE UP INTO THE HIGH MOUNTAIN.
More than all, however, had the Weaver of the doctrine of the Gospel this Tunic, the Wisdom of God, Jesus Christ, and gave it unto His Apostles; for ALL THINGS, said He, WHICH I HAVE HEARD OF MY FATHER, I HAVE MADE KNOWN UNTO YOU. This also was the signification of that Tunic of the Lord, which the soldiers would not rend, for that it was WITHOUT SEAM, WOVEN FROM THE TOP THROUGHOUT - as though they thought the Lord's loss would be great; the which sheweth how great a loss they cause who strive to rend with their heresies the doctrines of the Gospel.
The Subdeacon, also, weareth the Tunic, as shall be shewn in the following chapter.
OF THE DALMATIC
1. The Bishop, immediately after the Tunic, vesteth him in the Dalmatic, according to the institution of Silvester, Pope. This is believed to have been borrowed from the Lord's seamless coat, and from the Colobium of the Apostles. Now the Colobium is a dress without sleeves, such as is now seen in the cowl of a monk. But Pope Silvester changed it into the Dalmatic, by adding broad sleeves, and ordered it to be worn at the Sacrifice of the Altar.
2. Now the Dalmatic is so called, because it was devised in Dalmatia, after all other priestly vestments. By its shape it signifieth liberality, for it hath large sleeves and long. For according to the Apostle it beseemeth that a Bishop should be NOT GREEDY OF FILTHY LUCRE, BUT GIVEN TO HOSPITALITY; wherefore he must not have a hand closed from giving and strecht out to receive; but must do that which the Prophet doth advise, BREAK THY BREAD UNTO THE HUNGRY, AND BRING THE POOR THAT ARE CAST OUT TO THINE HOUSE. And it is on this account, doubtless, that Deacons in especial do wear Dalmatics, for that they chiefly were appointed by the Apostles unto the office of serving tables.
3. Further, the Deacon's Dalmatic hath fuller sleeves than the Tunicle of the Subdeacon, because he himself ought to have a charity ampler than the other, by reason of his greater gift. But the Dalmatic of the Bishop hath wider sleeves than that of the Deacon, to shew that the former is more unhindered, and hath nought that may hold back his hand; for upon heavenly things he must lavish all, and his charity must reach even unto his adversaries. But the Tunicle of the Subdeacon, the Dalmatic of the Deacon, and the Chasuble of the Priest, do all follow in the stead of the blue Tunic, which was of the colour of the heaven; in token that all the ministers of the Altar ought to live an heavenly life, according unto higher or lower rank, which are marked by the breadth or straitness of the sleeves of the Dalmatic and Tunicle respectively, as hath been said before.
4. The Priest, because he ought to be the least hindered as touching heavenly things, weareth not these Vestments, nor indeed aught else whereby the arms may be straitened. But the Bishop weareth at once the Dalmatic, and the Tunic, and the Vestments of all Orders, to shew that he containeth all Orders in himself perfectly, as who bestoweth them all upon other. These the lesser ministers bestow not, and therefore wear not the Vestments that figure them, but for them one sufficeth, to signify the heavenly life. Beside, the Bishop, both in his ornaments and in his Office, beareth in more special wise the likeness of the Saviour than doth the simple Priest, and the significations of the Vestments do pertain more aptly unto him; wherefore he weareth the more.
5. The Dalmatic ought to have two scarlet orfreys reaching all its length from top to bottom back and fore, that the Bishop may shew himself to have, both in weal and woe, fervent charity unto God and his neighbour; and this agreeth unto the commandment of both the Old and the New Testament, to wit, THOU SHALT LOVE THE LORD THY GOD WITH ALL THINE HEART, AND THY NEIGHBOUR AS THYSELF. Thus also John, BELOVED, NO NEW COMMENDMENT WRITE I UNTO YOU, BUT AN OLD COMMANDMENT, WHICH YE HAD FROM THE BEGINNING; and again, A NEW COMMANDMENT I WRITE UNTO YOU. And sometimes the purple stripes be significant of faith in the Blood of Christ, so necessary unto either people. Upon the left side the Dalmatic is wont to have a fringe, for emblem of the cares of the active life, which the Bishop must have for his flock, agreeably unto the word of the Apostle, which saith, BESIDE THOSE THINGS THAT ARE WITHOUT, THAT WHICH COMETH UPON ME DAILY, THE CARE OF ALL THE CHURCHES. The right side, lacking the fringe, is a token of the contemplation of heavenly things, which lacketh care, and is unmolested by the multitude of troubles.
6. Furthermore, certain Dalmatics have fringes fifteen-fold before and behind, because fifteen psalms in the Old Testament, like fifteen branches or steps, do issue forth from the path of charity, and fifteen likewise in the New Testament do grow out of her work: to wit, CHARITY SUFFERETH LONG, CHARITY IS KIND, and so forth unto the words CHARITY NEVER FAILETH. But others have a fringe of twenty-eight before, and as many behind; wherein the sevenfold Spirit is represented eight times over, Who filleth eight orders of them that praise God, that is, KINGS AND PEOPLE, PRINCES AND JUDGES, YOUNG MEN AND MAIDENS, OLD MEN AND CHILDREN. Again, in the Dalmatic is diversity without division, because divers works of religion are done in the sight of God, yet in prayer is no difference at all. And at the sides it is open beneath the armpits, putting him who weareth it in mind to follow in Christ's steps, Who was stabbed in the side with a spear.
7. Moreover, the Dalmatic maketh the form of a cross, wherein it is a token of Christ's Passion, and so is worn in the Office of the Mass, in which that Passion is shown forth, It signifieth also holy religion, and mortification of the flesh, and the spirit of supernal things. If white, it standeth for a holy and spotless life; if red, for a martyr; but the white dalmatic wrought about with divers colours denoteth purity together with the variety of virtues, and is adorned with an orfrey, as it is written, AT THY RIGHT HAND DID STAND THE QUEEN IN A VESTURE OF GOLD, WROUGHT ABOUT WITH DIVERS COLOURS.
8. As touching that which agreeth unto the Head, which is Christ, the Dalmatic by its breadth and largeness is significant of His mercy, which Himself more than all others both taught and used; BE YE MERCIFUL, said He, EVEN AS YOUR FATHER IS MERCIFUL. And BLESSED ARE THE MERCIFUL, FOR THEY SHALL OBTAIN MERCY. He is that Samaritan, our Neighbour, Who wrought mercifully with us, pouring into our wounds wine and oil: THROUGH THE TENDER MERCY OF OUR GOD THE DAYSPRING FROM ON HIGH HATH VISITEDUS; NOT BY WORKS OF RIGHTEOUSNESS WHICH WE HAVE DONE, BUT ACCORDING TO HIS MERCY HE SAVED US, coming for sinners' sakes, that He might grant them pardon for their sins; Who said, I WILL HAVE MERCY AND NOT SACRIFICE.
We read in a Canon of Gregory that in the primitive Church neither Bishops nor Deacons might wear the Dalmatic, save by special license of the Apostolic see.
9. The Deacons leave off their Dalmatics at the time of the Lord's Advent. For when some measure of the splendour of holy service is laid aside for a time, it seemeth to the minds of the faithful to shine out the more brightly when it is resumed, and is taken again with the more gladness; because the more uncommon a thing is, the more we weary after it. Another reason wherefore the Deacon weareth not the Dalmatic in Advent, nor the Subdeacon his Tunicle, is this: that the Law (for which the Subdeacon standeth) did lack the beauty of the Gospel, and the Gospel's charity (which the Deacon signifieth) was not yet made manifest, before the Incarnation of the Lord. Or it is for this, if thou wilt, that He Who should put upon us the robe of innocence and immortality was not yet come; wherefore at this time the Vestments of gladness be laid aside. Yet Chasubles are worn in Advent; whereof somewhat hath been said by me in another book of the Rationale. Nevertheless upon the fasts in the Octave of Pentecost, the Deacon may wear his Dalmatic.
OF THE GLOVES
1. Because by vain men-pleasing full many spoil the good works they do; immediately after the Dalmatic put on, the Bishop according unto the Apostolic rite covereth his hands with the Gloves, that his left hand may not know what his right hand doeth. For by the Glove is meetly figured caution, which doeth her work before the eyes of men, yet hideth her plans in secret none the less. For albeit the Lord said, LET YOUR LIGHT SO SHINE BEFORE MEN, THAT THEY MAY SEE YOUR GOOD WORKS, AND GLORIFY YOUR FATHER WHICH IS IN HEAVEN, in type whereof the Glove hath a golden circlet upon it; yet the same Lord gave this precept, TAKE HEED THAT YE DO NOT YOUR ALMS BEFORE MEN, TO BE SEEN OF THEM; OTHERWISE YE HAVE NO REWARD OF YOUR FATHER WHICH IS IN HEAVEN.
2. Wherefore the hands be sometimes covered with the Gloves, and sometimes bared, because good works be sometimes hidden for the avoiding of vainglory, and sometimes made manifest to the edification of his neighbour.
3. They are without seam, for the actions of the Bishop ought to be in right agreement with his faith. As worn upon the hands, also, they are a type of the examples of the Saints, which are to be held fast by him in all his works; which works must be cleansed from all pollution, lest the LITTLE LEAVEN LEAVEN THE WHOLE LUMP. And by the Gloves themselves, as being white, we understand chastity and purity, that his hands, that is, his works, may be clean, and innocent of all stain.
4. As touching that which agreeth unto the Head, even Christ, the Gloves are made of the skins of kids, such as Rebekah put on the hands of Jacob, that their hairiness might set forth the likeness of his elder brother. And the skin of the kid is the likeness of sin, with which likeness Mother Rebekah - that is, the grace of the Holy Spirit - did array the hands of the true Jacob, that is, the works of Christ; to the end that He, the Second Adam, might bear the likeness of the elder, that is, the first Adam. For Christ did without sin take upon Himself the likeness of sin, that the mystery of the Incarnation might be concealed from the devil; and did hunger and thirst, suffered and was affrighted, slept and toiled, after the similitude of sinners. Unto Whom when He had FASTED FORTY DAYS AND FORTY NIGHTS, AND WAS AFTERWARD AN HUNDRED, the devil came in the likeness of the first Adam, and did essay to tempt Him; yet he who had after the same manner conquered the first, was by the Second vanquisht.
OF THE MITRE
1. Having put on the Chasuble, the Bishop placeth on his head the Mitre, in the stead of the ancient Mitre or priestly bonnet; according unto the words, THOU HAST CROWNED HIM, O LORD, WITH GLORY AND HONOUR. The Lord Pope hath moreover the crown, the Imperial Tiara and Pall, the Purple Cloak and Blue Tunic, according to the Donation of Constantine, Emperor.
2. Now the Mitre betokeneth the knowledge of both Testaments; for its two horns are these same, the fore horn the New, the after horn the Old; and both these the Bishop ought to know by heart, and with them, as with a twofold horn, to smite the enemies of the Faith. Thus ought he to appear horned unto his flock, as did Moses in the eyes of Aaron and of the children of Israel from his companying with the Word of God, when bearing the two Tables of the Testimony he came down from Mount Sinai; as it is said in the thirty-fourth chapter of Exodus. Yet do certain heretics condemn the Mitre with its horns, and the Bishop wearing it; who allege unto the fostering of their error the words of John in the Apocalypse, I BEHELD ANOTHER BEAST COMING UP OUT OF THE EARTH, AND HE HAD TWO HORNS LIKE A LAMB, AND HE SPAKE AS A DRAGON.
3. The two fringed bands that hang from behind the Mitre are the spirit and the letter; by which bands, or little tongues, it is set forththat the Bishop ought to be ready both in the mystical and in the historical interpretation of Holy Scripture. At their ends are fringes of red, denoting that he is prepared to defend the Faith and the Holy Scriptures, yea, even unto blood. And these hang down over his shoulders, in token that he should shew forth in his deeds that which he preacheth with his lips; for that there is no part more eminent than the shoulders for might to labour, or for bearing of burthens; wherefore by them works be meetly understood.
4. The golden circlet which embraceth the after and fore parts of the Mitre, sheweth that EVERY SCRIBE WHICH IS INSTRUCTED UNTO THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN IS LIKE UNTO AN HOUSEHOLDER WHICH BRINGETH FORTH OUT OF HIS TREASURES THINGS NEW AND OLD. Let the Bishop therefore take earnest heed that he desire not to be a master or ever he know how to be a disciple, lest if the BLIND LEAD THE BLIND, THEY BOTH FALL INTO THE DITCH; for it is written in the Prophet, BECAUSE THOU HAST REJECTED KNOWLEDGE, I WILL ALSO REJECT THEE, THAT THOU SHALT BE NO PRIEST TO ME. Moreover, it well befitteth that the Mitre, whose shape goeth up into an height, should stand for the loftiness of wisdom, for the Bishop ought so to excel in knowledge those who are subject unto him, that in their relation to him they may worthily be called his flock.
The two bands which hang from the hinder part of the Mitre denote a twofold mindfulness. The former is the mindfulness of the Divine acts; lest in celebrating he make little reckoning thereof, and be punished: and for a like reason even in the Old Testament he that would offer sacrifice was wont to walk amid the sound of bells, that thereby he might be received as worthy or be rejected as unworthy, by the Angel who was placed to guard the Temple. And the second band is the mindfulness of his sins, that he have contrition of them.
5. The Mitre, being sometimes of white linen, signifieth Chastity; wherefore this Vestment is very necessary unto the head, in which the body's five senses have their seat of life; for Chastity is easily violated, if thou corrupt these.
Also there be some who affirm that the Bishop's Mitre is a type of the Crown of Thorns. And hence it cometh that in the Office of the Mass, wherein the Bishop representeth Christ in His Passion, it is the Deacon who putteth him the mitre on and off; for that it is the Deacon's office to read the Gospel, in which it is written concerning Christ crowned with thorns. And the two horns are the two precepts of Charity; wherefore the Bishop taketh the Mitre in understanding that he ought to guard his five senses against the allurements of the world, so as to keep the laws of the two Testaments; and to fulfil the two precepts of Charity, that he may be counted worthy to receive an eternal crown.
But the others, Priests and clergy, cover not in general their heads with any ornament, albeit upon Festivals they be vested in every other part of the body. And this is in part because our joy is not yet full, for we joy not in the possession of things present, but in the hope of things to come; and in part because we be journeying unto that estate, wherein we shall behold God with an open face.
6. Now the Orfreyed Mitre is to be used from Easter unto Advent and from the Lord's Nativity unto Septuagesima, and upon all Doubles, and upon Feasts having nine Lessons throughout the year, save upon the Feast of the Holy Innocents, as shall be said in the chapter of the Colours; and upon the Sundays of the aforesaid seasons, and in general whenever Gloria in Excelsis and Te Deum shall be said. For when these are said upon Feasts, wherein we have in mind generally or specially the excellence of the Head or the joy of the members, we do rightly use the Orfreyed Mitre; for the brightness of gold and jewels representeth joy. But upon Fasts it is not to be used, as followeth, because these have been ordained for the blotting-out of sins, which upon them are to be brought to remembrance; and therefore nought is then to be wrought or worn which signifieth joy, but rather all that may mark affliction and humility.
7. At other times the Orfreyed Mitre is ruled not to be used, but the Simple: namely, from Advent unto the Nativity (save that the Lord Pope weareth the Orfreyed upon Gaudete Sunday) and from Septuagesima unto Easter (save of the Pope upon Laetare Sunday, Maundt Thursday at Mass only, and Holy Saturday at Mass). Also upon Feasts of three Lessons occurring within these seasons, upon all Vigils whereon a Feast is kept, at the Four Seasons, and upon Rogation days (save that the Lord Pope weareth the Orfreyed upon the Feast of S. Mark at Mass only); also in the Offices of the departed.
8. This also is to be noted, that the Bishop of Rome weareth the Regnum, that is, the Imperial Crown, in token of Imperial sway, and the Mitre in token of High Priesthood; but he weareth the Mitre everywhere and always, yet not everywhere and always the Regnum, because Pontifical authority hath priority of Imperial power, and is of more dignity and extent. For the Priesthood took precedence of the Kinghood amongst the people of God; for Aaron the first High Priest was before Saul the first King, and Noe was before Nimrod, as it is written, THE BEGINNING OF THE KINGDOM OF NIMROD WAS BABYLON; but Noe BUILDED AN ALTAR UNTO THE LORD, AND OFFERED BURNT OFFERINGS ON THE ALTAR. Wherefore the Lord Pope doth not wear the Regnum, save on certain days and in certain places, nor anywhere within the Church, but without it.
9. As touching that which agreeth unto the Head, even Christ, the Bishop's Mitre betokeneth that which the Prophet, speaking of the Son, saith unto the Father, THOU HAST CROWNED HIM WITH GLORY AND HONOUR: THOU MADEST HIM TO HAVE DOMINION OVER THE WORKS OF THINE HANDS. It is the Name WHICH IS ABOVE EVERY NAME, THAT AT THE NAME OF JESUS EVERY KNEE SHOULD BOW, OF THINGS IN HEAVEN, AND THINGS IN EARTH, AND THINGS UNDER THE EARTH. For upon the golden plate of the High Priest's Mitre was graven the Four-Lettered Name of the Lord, whose mystery we shall set forth in the chapter of the Vestments of the Law. Thus by the Christian Mitre we understand that supreme glorifying of the Head or Person of Christ, which by reason of His Godhood we owe unto His Manhood, even as His Footstool is adored by reason of His Feet; for it is written, FALL DOWN BEFORE HIS FOOTSTOOL, FOR HE IS HOLY.
10. And mark that Zachary, Pope, hath said, the Bishop who goeth unto the Altar to pray, or assisteth at the Altar or uttereth prayers before God, layeth aside his Mitre and Staff; because the Apostle forbiddeth that men should pray in Church with covered head, that they may contemplate the glory of God with open face. But when he turneth himself unto the people to preach to them, he taketh again the symbol of his dread authority. In like manner Moses also urged the people's cause with God by prayer, but God's matter brought he before the people with the sword.
11. Lastly be it noted, that some Bishops do give solemn blessing in the Mass, and incense the Altar, without the Mitre; but others do wear it the while. The former are prompted by this thought, that in their solemn blessing they are vicegerents of God, and that God in a mystery blesseth through their mean; as it is said in the sixth chapter of the Book of Numbers, THEY SHALL INVOKE MY NAME UPON THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL, AND I WILL BLESS THEM. The incensing of the Altar, too, signifieth prayers, as in the eighth chapter of the Apocalypse we are told that THE SMOKE OF THE INCENSE ASCENDED UP FROM THE PRAYERS OF THE SAINTS. As pleading, therefore, the cause of the folk with God in prayer, they say that the Bishop ought to do this with reverence, that is, with his Mitre put off.
The latter, on the other hand, are minded that blessing and incensing are not essential to the consecration of the Body of Christ, but have regard merely unto solemnity of function; and therefore so they perform these rites vested in the Mitre, that they may be distinguished from simple Priests thereby. For though the Bishop beareth more part than the mere Priest in those matters which belong unto solemn fnction, as in Vestments and the like, yet not so in those which have regard unto the Consecration itself. Still doth this reason appear in a manner insufficient, for it would accord therewith never to put off the Mitre at Mass, save when those words are pronounced at which the change of species taketh place.
OF THE RING
1. The Ring is the sign of plighted faith, wherewith Christ hath espoused His Bride Holy Church, that she may have authority to say concerning herself, The Lord Jesus Christ hath espoused me with His Ring, Whose watchmen and teachers are the Bishops and Prelates, who bear rings as a figure and token to this very thing; those watchmen whereof saith the Spouse in the Canticles, THE WATCHMEN THAT GO ABOUT THE CITY FOUND ME. This is the Ring that was given by the Father unto his son returning, according to that of the Gospel, PUT A RING ON HIS HAND; and from this place of the Gospel it is thought that the use of the Ring hath been derived.
2. The Bishop's Ring therefore signifieth the integrity of plighted troth, namely, that he should love the Church, God's Spouse, committed unto him, even as himself, and should keep her pure and chaste for her Heavenly Bridegroom; as in that of Paul, I HAVE ESPOUSED YOU TO ONE HUSBAND, THAT I MAY PRESENT YOU AS A CHASTE VIRGIN TO CHRIST; and that he may be mindful that he himself is not a master, but a pastor. Of this Bridegroom and Bride John Evangelist saith, HE THAT HATH THE BRIDE IS THE BRIDEGROOM; BUT THE FRIEND OF THE BRIDEGROOM, WHICH STANDETH AND HEARETH HIM, REJOICETH GREATLY BECAUSE OF THE BRIDEGROOM'S VOICE. The Bishop, therefore, is the Vicar and Friend of the Bridegroom; and being His Vicar, is himself also the Bridegroom in certain wise.
3. Again, with a Ring of old they were wont to seal letters; wherefore the Bishop weareth a ring, for that he should seal up the mysteries of Scripture and the holy things of the Church from the faithless, and reveal them unto the humble.
And as touching that which agreeth unto the Head, even Christ, the Ring on the finger is a type of the gift of the Holy Ghost; for the finger, which is a part jointed and distinct, giveth a hint of the Holy Ghost, according unto that Scripture, THE MAGICIAN SAID, THIS IS THE FINGER OF GOD; and in another place, IF I WITH THE FINGER OF GOD CAST OUT DEVILS, BY WHOM DO YOUR SONS CAST THEM OUT?
4. Also the Ring, being golden and round, representeth the perfection of the Spirit's gifts, which Christ hath received without measure, for that in Him dwelleth ALL THE FULNESS OF THE GODHEAD BODILY. For HE THAT COMETH FROM HEAVEN IS ABOVE ALL, unto Whom GOD GAVE NOT THE SPIRIT BY MEASURE, saying, UPON WHOM THOU SHALT SEE THE SPIRIT DESCENDING, AND REMAINING ON HIM, THE SAME IS HE THAT BAPTISETH. For THE SPIRIT OF WISDOM AND UNDERSTANDING SHALL REST UPON HIM. And He of His fulness distributeth in divers gifts, giving unto one, as saith the Apostle, THE WORD OF KNOWLEDGE, TO ANOTHER THE GIFT OF HEALING, TO ANOTHER THE WORKING OF MIRACLES, and so forth; and this the visible Bishop imitateth, making in the Church some Priests, some Deacons, others Subdeacons, and the rest. Wherefore it is not amiss that the jewelled Ring gleameth upon the finger of the Bishop; for by Him, of Whom it is mystic symbol, are given the bright gifts of grace.
OF THE PASTORAL STAFF
1. The Pastoral Staff signifieth Pastoral Correction, according unto that which is said by the Consecrator unto him that is consecrated, 'Receive the Staff of the Pastoral Office, that in the chastising of vices thou mayest be angry, and sin not.' And hereof also the Apostle, SHALL I COME TO YOU WITH A ROD? By the Pastoral Staff therefore we do understand the priestly power, which Christ did confer upon His Apostles, when sending them out to preach He charged them that they should bear staves. And Moses also was sent into Egypt with a rod.
2. Thus the Staff is derived from both the Law and the Gospel, being called both the Pastoral Staff, and the Crosier, and the Corrk, and the Rod. For Moses had a Rod by the commandment of God, which wrought terrible things in sea and sky, bringing food from heaven, and water from the rock; and drave his flock unto the LAND FLOWING WITH MILK AND HONEY. Further, the Staff is Doctrinal Authority. For by it the weak are sustained, the restless rallied, and the erring drawn to repentance; whence it is called Pedum, the Crook, which is the name of the curved wooden staff wherewith shepherds draw back their herds by the feet.
3. Now the Staff is for the most part made of ivory and wood, which are joined together by a knop of crystal and gilt; the ivory above is crooked, and the wood below hath and iron point, but not much of the end is hidden therein. The ivory is the severity of the Law, the wood the Gospel's gentleness; and these twain are joined with the knop, as it were by the Divinity of Jesus Christ. Or, if thou wilt, the ivory is the Bishop's severity, and the wood his gentleness, both the which in his judgments he combineth with the BOND OF CHARITY; for either sternness or mildness lacketh exceedingly, if the one be held to without the other; and to this end the iron is blunt, for that justice is tempered with mercy. The Staff is crooked, to signify the recalling of the contrite into penance. Sometimes the curve maketh the shape of an head, because eternal life is promised unto them that turn to God; and sometimes round the curved part is written,
CVM IRATVS FVERIS MISERICORDIAE RECORDABERIS,
which is, being interpreted, In wrath remember mercy; lest by reason of the backslidings of his flock the shepherd's wrath should becloud the eyes of his reason. Sometimes upon the knop is inscribed HOMO, that the Bishop may remember himself to be but man, nor be puffed up with the power committed to him; sometimes also hard by the point is written PARCE, that in his discipline he may spare those subject unto him, and being merciful may for his mercy obtain mercy.
4. The Staff is sharp at the end, straight in the midst, and crooked at the top; this meaneth that the Bishop ought to goad on the idle, to direct the feeble with his own rightepusness, and to gather the wanderers together; hence the verse,
COLLIGE SVSTENTA STIMVLA VAGA MORBIDA LENTA,
which being interpreted is,
Gather, and guide, and goad unto the goal
The stray, the ailing, and the tarrying soul;
wherein if thou refer word to his word, thou wilt find that all the foregoing are contained. Or it may be thus,
ATTRAHE PER PRIMVM MEDIO REGE PVNGE PER IMVM,
The Top, to draw into the road:
The Midst, to rule: the End, to goad.
5. But the Bishop of Rome useth not the Pastoral Staff, partly for an historical, and in part for a mystical reason. The historical reason is as follows. The Blessed Apostle Peter sent Martial his disciple (whom the Lord made to be His follower when He said, EXCEPT YE BECOME AS THIS LITTLE CHILD, YE SHALL NOT ENTER INTO THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN) with certain others to preach unto the Germans. When they had gone a twenty-days' journey, Martial's colleague, Frontus, died, and Martial returned to tell this to Peter; whereupon Peter said unto him, 'Take this Staff and touch him with it, and say, In the Name of the Lord arise and preach.' This Martial did, touching him on the fortieth day after his death; and he arose, and did preach. And it was thus that Saint Peter put away his Staff from him and gave it unto his flock; nor did he recover it again. But on the other hand, Innocent the Third, Pope, wrote in his Speculum Ecclesiae that Blessed Peter sent his Staff unto Eucherius, first Bishop of Tr¸ves, whom he appointed, together with Valerius and Maternus, to preach the Gospel unto the Teutonic people; and to him Maternus succeeded as Bishop, who had been raised up from death by Peter's Staff. And this Staff is preserved by the Church of Tr¸ves with great veneration even unto this day; wherefore the Pope useth the Staff in that diocese, and none other.
6. But the mystical reason is this, that the drawing-in of wanderers, as symbolised by the crookedness of the top of the Staff, is not needed in the case of the Bishop of Rome; for that none can altogether turn away from him. Moreover the Staff is a type of that constraining power, which the other Bishops receive at the hands of men, and therefore do they receive and hold their Staves from those set over them. But the Pope, because he receiveth his power from God alone, hath not the Staff.
7. Lastly, as touching that which agreeth unto the Head, even Christ, the Bishop's Staff signifieth the power of Christ, whereof the Psalmist saith, THE ROD OF THY KINGDOM IS A RIGHT SCEPTRE, that is, a sceptre of direction, FOR THOU HAST LOVED RIGHTEOUSNESS, AND HATED INIQUITY; and elsewhere, THOU SHALT RULE THEM WITH A ROD OF IRON. The hardness of the iron signifieth the might of rightness, with which Christ SHALL BREAK THE UNRIGHTEOUS IN PIECES LIKE A POTTER'S VESSEL.
Yet is the power of Christ not the power of the rod alone, but the power also of the Staff, for it doth not only chasten, but sustaineth; whence the Psalmist, THY ROD AND THY STAFF COMFORT ME.
OF THE SUDARIUM
And now, having done with the Nine Vestments peculiar to the Bishop, let us for a space consider certain others: whereof the first shall be the Sudarium. This is a linen cloth, which he that serveth the Bishop hath alway ready, wherewith the latter may wipe away from himself all the sweat and unnecessary moistness of the body; and it signifieth the care we must have to wipe away all this life's human defilements through the examples of the holy Fathers, by which we are confirmed unto patience. For as sweat in the body, so is that weariness in the soul, whensoever it doth bedew as it were the brow of the conscience through the consciousness of sin.
2. Let us have, then, as it were a Napkin of linen, chastened and cleansed by many blows, with which to wipe off the affections of this world; and with David and Job laying aside sadness, let us wipe away all that may oppress us.
In some Churches the Deacon hath a Sudarium, and layeth it down on the right side of the Altar, that if aught foul should chance to come near he may wipe it away, and so may keep the Priest's Sudarium clean every whit.
The meaning of the Sudarium is almost the same as that of the Maniple; whereof I have spoken above.
OF THE PALL
1. Now in due course we shall subjoin somewhat concerning the Pall. This Vestment pertaineth unto Patriarchs, Primates, and Metropolitans, to distinguish them from the rest of the Bishops, for that unto these is committed a special dignity of privilege; wherefore I have in no wise mentioned it under the heads of the foregoing Vestments common or peculiar.
In the Pall, then, we find at once both the Ephod and the Breastplate of the Priest in the Law. For it may be called Superhumeral, in that it falleth over both the Bishop's shoulders, and Rationale or Breastplate, in that it falleth thence upin his breast, and is fastened there; for the ancient High Priest had both Ephod and Breastplate joined together by chains of gold. Some there be, however, who hold that the Breastplate hath to-day no Vestment to represent it; concerning which matter I will speak in the last chapter of this Book. Others say that the Pall was instituted in the stead of the Golden Plate; though it seem more likely that the Orfreyed Mitre representeth the Plate.
2. Now the Pall as worn by these greater ones signifieth the authority wherewith they ought to rule and restrain, not only those submitted unto them, but also themselves; for by those means is won that golden chain which those receive who strive lawfully, of which Solomon speaketh in the Proverbs, saying, MY SON, HEAR THE INSTRUCTION OF THY FATHER, AND FORSAKE NOT THE LAW OF THY MOTHER: FOR THEY SHALL BE AN ORNAMENT OF GRACE UNTO THY HEAD, AND CHAINS ABOUT THY NECK. But even as the chain or prize was not wont to be given, save unto them that strove lawfully, according unto that word of the Apostle, MANY RUN, BUT ONE RECEIVETH THE PRIZE, so also none shall make his way unto the honor of the Pall, save that he have first laboured lawfully in each degree of office ecclesiastical. For even as touching the offices of this world they confer not the highest place upon them that are but just upon the threshold of their labours, but upon such as have been approved in their passage through many degrees; and that degree excelleth the rest, whereunto more protracted labour and longer service have given the precedence.
The Pall, then, is worn over all Vestments, that the other Ministers when they see it may be exhorted unto lawful striving. And the Bishop, when he putteth it on and off, doth kiss it, to show his own great desire of contending lawfully, and of deserving the prize.
3. It is woven of white wool, having a circular part confining the shoulders, and two strips hanging down before and behind; on the left it is double, on the right single; and it hath four purple crosses, one before, one behind, one on the right, and one on the left; there be also three pins fastened therein. Some things there be, which may not be done by the Metropolitan without the Pall, nor is it lawful to wear it save upon fixt days. All these things are tinged with spiritual mysteries and big with heavenly meaning, for as the Scripture witnesseth, THE PARABLES OF KNOWLEDGE ARE IN THE TREASURES OF WISDOM. In the wool of the Pall we see asperity; in its whiteness, kindness: for the Church's discipline useth towards the rebellious and froward, severity, but gentleness towards the contrite and humble. Wherefore the Pall is made not of the wool of any and every animal, but only of the sheep, which is a gentle creature; thus the Prophet saith, HE WAS LED AS A SHEEP TO THE SLAUGHTER, AND LIKE A LAMB DUMB BEFORE HIS SHEARER, SO OPENED HE NOT HIS MOUTH. Hereunto agreeth the word we are told concerning that man half-dead with wounds, whom the Samaritan led into the inn and applied unto him wine and oil, that the wine might eat into his wounds, and the oil foment them; even so he who hath the chief part in the healing of wounds must apply the bite of severity, as wine, and the gentleness of love, as it were oil. Which also is well shewn by the Ark of the Tabernacle, wherein were contained, with the Tables, the Rod and the Manna, for in the mind of himthat ruleth there ought to be, together with the knowledge of scripture, both the Rod of guidance, and the Manna of kindness, that his severity be neither unduly severe, nor his love more indulgent than is meet. Again, the wool is of little price, whereof the Pall is made, that it may be precious not in itself, but in that which in itself it pourtrayeth, and may be meet to be looked upon, not with the eyes, but with the mind; in understanding that it is worn for its meaning, rather than for its beauty.
4. The circular part of the Pall, which confineth the shoulders, is that fear of the Lord by which works are wrought, so as neither to decline unto lawlessness, nor relax unto excess. For discipline must restrain the left hand from that which is unlawful, through fear of punishment, while it tempereth the right hand from extravagance, by the love of right; wherefore blessed is the man who feareth alway. For according to the word of Solomon, THE FEAR OF THE LORD DRIVETH AWAY SIN; BUT HE THAT LIVETH WITHOUT FEAR SHALL NOT BE JUSTIFIED. Wherefore this circle of the Pall doth confine the shoulders below the neck, to denote that he who weareth it ought to be one in word and deed.
5. The two strips, the one extending behind the back and the other before the breast of the Bishop, we hold to be a sign of the cares and anxieties of this life; which do too often on this wise cumber and weigh down the Bishop, causing him to stoop from that erectness which should be his, so that he must bear in mind and body the burthen of vain and transitory things. For this reason the Pall is fitted on from right and left before and behid, before the breast and over the shoulders, this signifying, that casting such things behind him he shall often restore himself to himself.
Hereby are also signified the life active and the life contemplative; which the Prelate ought to live in such wise, that after the example of Moses he may now climb up into the Mount and there hold parleyings of wisdom with the Lord, and now may go down into the camp, to take thought for the needs of the people. For he must be very ready to have a care that though he devote himself often unto others, he restore himself sometimes unto himself; being with Martha duly busied about his constant ministry, the while with Mary he hearkeneth unto the words of the Saviour. And by either strip he is weighed down, because THE CORRUPTIBLE BODY PRESSETH DOWN THE SOUL, AND THE EARTHLY TABERNACLE WEIGHETH DOWN THE MIND THAT MUSETH UPON MANY THINGS.
6. The Pall is double on the left side, as was also the Breastplate, but single on the right. For this present life, which the left side signifieth, is subject unto many troubles, and we cannot be free from a double state therein; being now puffed up with well-being, now broken with adversity; now seeking the things of earth, now cleaving unto heavenly things; serving now the flesh, now the spirit. But the life to come, which is signified by the right side, is gathered up into one endless rest; as the Very Truth declareth, when He said, MARTHA, MARTHA, THOU ART CAREFUL AND TROUBLED ABOUT MANY THINGS, BUT ONE THING IS NEEDFUL; AND MARY HATH CHOSEN THAT GOOD PART, WHICH SHALL NOT BE TAKEN AWAY FROM HER.
7. Again, the Pall is double on the left side, that the Prelate may in his day be strong to bear the troubles of this present life; but single on the right, that with his whole heart he may sigh to win the tranquility of the life to come. Whereof the Psalmist, ONE THING HAVE I DESIRED OF THE LORD WHICH I WILL REQUIRE: EVEN THAT I MAY DWELL IN THE HOUSE OF THE LORD ALL THE DAYS OF MY LIFE, TO BEHOLD THE FAIR BEAUTY OF THE LORD, AND TO VISIT HIS TEMPLE. For There is neither doubleness nor wrinkle, but prosperity without adversity, and joy without sadness, and felicity without grief.
8. The four purple crosses be the Four Cardinal Virtues, to wit Justice, Fortitude, Temperence, and Prudence: and these do usurp the name of virtue falsely unto themselves, nor lead unto true blessing or glory, except they be made purple in the Blood of Christ's Cross. Wherefore the Lord said unto His Apostles, EXCEPT YOUR RIGHTEOUSNESS SHALL EXCEED THE RIGHTEOUSNESS OF THE SCRIBES AND PHARISEES, YE SHALL IN NO CASE ENTER INTO THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN. This is that KING'S PURPLE DYED WITH STRIPES, whereof Solomon speaketh in the Song of Songs. He therefore that is adorned with the honour of the Pall, if he wish to be that which is exprest in the forepart, ought to have Justice, that he may render unto every man his own; for the after part he ought to have Prudence, that he may beware of that which is harmful unto any; for the left, Fortitude, that ills cast him not down; and for the right, Temperance, that he be not puffed up with prosperity.
9. The three pins which are fastened in the Pall, one before the breast, one over the left shoulder, and one behind the back, are not made for piercing - that is to say, not for the piercings of this life - but to fasten the Pall and the Chasuble together; and some little rings were fixt of old in the Chasuble, into which the pins were inserted, making both Pall and Chasuble fast, so that the former should not move out of his place. In these three pins we may discern Faith, Hope, and Charity, without which the Pall cannot fitly be had by the Bishop. They denote also compassion for his neighbour, the administration of his office, and the discrimination of his judgment; whereof the first with sorrow, the second with labour, and the third with fear, pricketh his soul. With the first of these the Apostle was prickt, when he said, WHO IS WEAK, AND I AM NOT WEAK? WHO IS OFFENDED, AND I BURN NOT? and with the second, when he said, BESIDE THOSE THINGS THAT ARE WITHOUT, THAT WHICH COMETH UPON ME DAILY, THE CARE OF ALL THE CHURCHES. With the third Job was prickt, saying, IF THE RIGHTEOUS SCARCELY BE SAVED, WHERE SHALL THE UNGODLY AND THE SINNER APPEAR? Upon the right shoulder there is no pin fastened, for that our everlasting rest hath no prick of affliction nor sting of sorrow. For GOD SHALL WIPE AWAY ALL TEARS FROM THE EYES OF THE SAINTS, AND AT THAT TIME THERE SHALL BE NO MORE EITHER SRROW OR CRYING, NEITHER SHALL THERE BE ANY MORE PAIN; FOR THE FORMER THINGS ARE PASSED AWAY.
10. The pins must be of gold, the end sharp, and the head round, with a precious stone set in it; because of a truth the good pastor, in caring for his sheep, is afflicted on earth, but shall be crowned in Heaven; where he shall have that precious pearl spoken of by the Lord in the Gospel, THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN IS LIKE UNTO A MAN SEEING GOODLY PEARLS; WHO WHEN HE HAD FOUND ONE PEARL OF GREAT PRICE, WEN TAND SOLD ALL THAT HE HAS, AND BROUGHT IT.
11. In and with the Pall is conferred the plenitude of the Episcopal Office. Hence it cometh that the Metropolitan may neither call a council, nor consecrate the Chrism, nor ordain clergy in his province, nor consecrate Bishops, nor dedicate Churches, nor take unto himself the title of Archbishop, until he have been honoured therewith; although there be some who say that if he be invited outside his own province, he might confer Holy Order as a simple Bishop, without the Pall. Some there be, again, who affirm that a Bishop, even though he be such an one as may use the Pall, may not grant permission to an Archbishop of another province to wear the Pall in his diocese, unless the said Palled Bishop be an exempt; and that even an Archbishop may not do the like in his province, unless the Archbishop invited have special priviliege of wearing the Pall outside his own province if he be so invited. But these be points rather of rigorous order than of courtesy; nor, save thou look upon the matter curiously, does the case of an exempt Palled Bishop seem to differ greatly from one not exempt.
12. But one Metropolitan may not officiate with the Pall of another, nor by the same count may he be buried therein, but only in his own; nevertheless he who hath been Palled, if he have been translated unto another Church, is buried with the Pall granted unto him in his second place. Nor may he who hath been Palled, if he be translated unto another Church, make use there of the Pall wherewith he was invested in his former Church; for the Pall is granted, not in respect of persons only, but of place as well. Hence it followeth that he may not wear it outside the province assigned unto him. Moreover, if anyone resign the Archbishoprick, he may no longer wear the Pall. Nor, again, may any wear the Pall, save in Church, and at the Church's offices; thus if it should fall to his lot to go out of Church in procession, or to preach, or for any the like purpose, he shall not go out with the Pall.
13. The use of the Pall is forbidden by rule, save upon solemn Feasts, as such occasions as may be contained among the privileges of each several Church. And the Festivals are as followeth:
The Nativity of our Lord.
The Three Days of the Resurrection.
The Feast of Saint John Baptist.
The Feast of All Apostles.
The Four Festivals of Blessed Mary.
Saint Martin, Peer of the Apostles.
Also upon the principal Feasts of the Church honoured with the Pall; and at
The Dedication of Churches.
The Consecration of Bishops.
The Ordination of Clergy; and upon
The anniversaries of the consecration of him that weareth the Pall.
By some are added the Sundays after Easter; but this latter is not the common use. I may also mention that wherever in his province there resteth the body of any Saint, upon the Feast of that Saint, and even upon the principal Festival of any place in his province, the Metropolitan may visit that place and may there wear the Pall and Sandals. But at the Burial of the Dead, and at the Solemnisation of Matrimony, these may not be worn, unless there be contained in a Privilege the express permission to do so. The Bishop of Ostia, who consecrateth the Pope, weareth the Pall, as ordained by Marcus, Pope; and there be certain Bishops beside, who do so by special privilege.
14. Lastly it is to be noted, that the Roman Pontiffs who were before Blessed Silvester are depicted as having linen Palls wrapt around their shoulders (for the Priest of the Law, too, when he sacrificed, turned back the ends of the Girdle over his shoulders). And this signifieth that the jurisdiction and authority of those said Popes, as set forth by the Pall, were involved and straitened, being not free. But Silvester, and they that came after him, have had power free and untrammelled; wherefore the stripes of their Palls are represented as hanging open and outspread behind and before. Another reason why these stripes, which denote cares and anxieties (as is aforesaid) do hang down without fold since the days of Pope Silvester, may be this, because the temporalities have been granted unto him and to his successors, which may not be had without anxiety and carefulness.
It hath been said by Bruno, that the Sovereign Pontiff weareth, beside the Vestments afore mentioned, the Regnum and Purple; and this not for any mystical reason, but because the Emperor Constantine did hand over to Blessed Silvester all the insignia of the Roman Empire. Wherefore in great processions all that pomp, which is used to be made in honour of the Emperors, is displayed in the person of the Roman Pontiff; and the Pope himself is crowned with the Imperial diadem.
OF THE FOUR COLOURS WHICH THE CHURCH USETH IN HER VESTMENTS
1. There be four principal colours, wherewith the Church doth make distinction in her sacred Vestments according to the propers of the seasons: namely, white, red, black, and green. For in the Vestments of the Law, too, we read that four colours were used, fine linen, purple, blue, and scarlet; of which I purpose to treat in the following chapter. The Roman Church useth also violet and yellow, as shall be noted hereafter.
2. White Vestments are to be used at the times following:
Upon the feasts of holy Confessors, and Virgins who are not Martyrs, by reason of their integrity and innocence. For HER NAZARITES WERE WHITER THAN SNOW; and THEY SHALL WALK WITH ME IN WHITE, FOR THEY ARE VIRGINS, AND SHALL FOLLOW THE LAMB WHITHERSOEVER HE GOETH.
For the same reason white is to be used upon the Festivals of the Angels, of whose brightness the Lord saith unto Lucifer, WHERE WAST THOU WHEN THE MORNING STARS SHOUTED FOR JOY?
Upon all Feasts of Mary, Holy Mother of God.
Upon the Feast of All Saints (although there be some who use red at this time, as shall be further noted below).
Upon the principal Feast of S. John, Evangelist.
Upon the Conversion of S. Paul.
Upon the Enthronement of S. Peter, whereof I will speak again.
From the Vigil of our Lord's Nativity to the Octave of Epiphany inclusively, save only upon such Feasts of Martyrs as occur between.
Upon the Nativity of Our Savious, and also of His Forerunner, for that both were born pure, that is, without original sin. For THE LORD RIDETH UPON A SWIFT CLOUD, which is to say that He took Flesh unspotted of sin, and COMETH INTO EGYPT, that is, into the world; according to that which the Angel spake unto the Virgin, THE HOLY GHOSTSHALL COME UPON THEE, AND THE POWER OF THE HIGHEST SHALL OVERSHADOW THEE. And John, even if thou hold him to have been conceived in sin, was nevertheless sanctified in the womb, as saith the Prophet, BEFORE THOU CAMEST FORTH OUT OF THE WOMB I SANCTIFIED THEE; and the Angel spake unto Zachary concerning him, HE SHALL BE FILLED WITH THE HOLY GHOST EVEN FROM HIS MOTHER'S WOMB.
White is used, again, in the Epiphany, by reason of the brightness of the star which led the Magi, as saith the Prophet, THE GENTILES SHALL COME TO THY LIGHT, AND KINGS TO THE BRIGHTNESS OF THY RISING.
At Hypapante, in honour of the purity of Mary, who at that time according to the song of Symeon did offer A LIGHT TO LIGHTEN THE GENTILES.
Upon Maundy Thursday, by reason of the consecration of the Chrism, for soul's cleansing; for cleanness is commanded in especial by the Gospel read upon that day, wherein the Lord saith, HE THAT IS BATHED NEEDETH NOT SAVE TO WASH HIS FEET, BUT IS CLEAN EVERY WHIT. And again, IF I WASH THEE NOT, THOU HAST NO PART WITH ME.
Upon Holy Saturday, in the Office of the Mass, and from thence unto the Octave of the Ascension inclusively, at all Offices of the season; save upon Rogation Days and upon such Feasts of Martyrs as occur between, whereof I will speak anon.
Upon the Feast of the Resurrection, because of the Angel, the witness of the Resurrection, the heral, who appeared CLOTHED IN A LONG WHITE GARMENT; of whom saith Matthew, that HIS COUNTENANCE WAS LIKE LIGHTNING, AND HIS RAIMENT WHITE AS SNOW. Also because children, who receive the New Birth at that time, are arrayed in white garments.
Upon the Feast of the Ascension, by reason of the bright cloud in which Christ ascended; for TWO MEN STOOD BY THEM IN WHITE APPAREL, WHICH ALSO SAID, YE MEN OF GALILEE, WHY STAND YE GAZING UP INTO HEAVEN?
3. At the Dedication of a Church. For note, that although at the consecration of a Bishop the colour of Vestments shall be such as agreeth unto the proper of the day, yet at the Dedication of a Church white Vestments be always used, whatever be the day of its solemnisation. The reason hereof is, that at the Consecration of a Bishop the Mass of the day is sung, but at the Dedication of a Basilica, the Mass of Dedication. For the Church is named with the name of a Virgin, according to that of the Apostle, I HAVE ESPOUSED YOU TO ONE HUSBAND, THAT I MAY PRESENT YOU AS A CHASTE VIRGIN TO CHRIST. And of her the Bridegroom saith in the Canticles, THOU ART ALL FAIR, MY LOVE; THERE IS NO SPOT IN THEE. Yet the Bishop himself who is consecrated weareth white Vestments, to denote that at all times HIS GARMENTS (that is, his life) MUST BE WHITE (that is, without stain).
And, lastly, white Vestments are used throughout the Octaves of such of the Feasts aforesaid as have Octaves, at all Offices wherein such Octaves are kept.
4. Red Vestments are used at the following times:
Upon the Festivals of Apostles, Evangelists, and of Martyrs, by reason of the blood of suffering which they shed for Christ; for THESE ARE THEY WHICH CAME OUT OF GREAT TRIBULATION; save only upon the Feast of the Holy Innocents, as shall be presently set forth.
Upon the Feast of the Holy Cross, whereon Christ shed His Blood for us; as saith the Prophet, WHEREFORE ART THOU RED IN THINE APPAREL, LIKE HIM THAT TREADETH IN THE WINEFAT? But others say it is better to use white on that day, since it is the Feast, not of the Passion, but of the Invention or Exaltation of the Cross.
At Mass from the Vigil of Pentecost until the Sabbath following, inclusively; because of the Burning fire of the Holy Spirit, Who appeared upon the Apostles in tongues of fire; for THERE APPEARED UNTO THEM CLOVEN TONGUES LIKE AS OF FIRE, AND IT SAT UPON EACH OF THEM. And according to the Prophet, FROM ABOVE HATH HE SENT A FIRE IN MY BONES. But although upon the Feast of the Martyrdom of the Apostles Peter and Paul red be used, yet upon the Conversion of St. Paul, and upon the Enthronement of Saint Peter, we wear white. And though upon the Nativity of Saint John Baptist white be worn, yet is red used upon his Decollation.
5. And upon the Feast of a Saint who is both Martyr and Virgin, the Martyrdom hath the preference, for it is the sign of love in perfection; as saith the Truth, GREATER LOVE HATH NO MAN THAN THIS, THAT A MAN LAY DOWN HIS LIFE FOR HIS FRIENDS.
For this reason there be some who use red Vestments in the Commemoration of All Saints, but others use white, as doth the Roman Church, for that not only on that day, but concerning it, the Church saith that the Saints, as according to John in the Apocalypse, will stand BEFORE THE LAMB, CLOTHED WITH WHITE ROBES, AND PALMS IN THEIR HANDS. The Bride saith also in the Canticles, MY BELOVED IS WHITE AND RUDDY, THE CHIEFEST AMONG TEN THOUSAND; that is, He is white, in His Confessors and Virgins, and red, in His Martyrs and Apostles; for these are the roses, those the lilies of the valley. They, on the other hand, who wear red on All Hallows' Day, are prompted by the thought that this Feast was first instituted in honour of Martyrs only. But unto this it may be answered, that it was instituted in honour of the Blessed Virgin also; and that nowadays the Church holdeth festival on that day on behalf not of Martyrs only, but of Confessors and Virgins also, according to the institution of Gregory.
And lastly, Red is used throughout the Octave of such of the Festivals foregoing as have Octaves, whensoever the Office shall be of the Octave.
6. Black is worn upon the following:
Upon Good Friday
Upon days of affliction and fasting for sin, and upon Rogation Days.
In barefoot processions which the Lord Pope maketh.
In Masses for the dead.
From Advent Sunday unto the Vigil of the Nativity.
From Septuagesima unto Holy Saturday. For the Bride saith in the Canticles, I AM BLACK BUT COMELY, O YE DAUGHTERS OF JERUSALEM, AS THE TENTS OF KEDAR, AS THE CURTAINS OF SOLOMON; LOOK NOT UPON ME BECAUSE I AM BLACK, BECAUSE THE SUN HATH LOOKED UPON ME.
Upon the Feast of the Holy innocents some do contend that black, some that red, Vestments should be used. They who favour black, allege the sadness of the day, how that IN RAMA WAS THERE A VIOCE HEARD, LAMENTATION, AND WEEPING, AND GREAT MOURNING, RACHEL WEEPING FOR HER CHILDREN, AND WOULD NOT BE COMFORTED, BECAUSE THEY ARE NOT; and how for the same cause the joyous hymns upon that day are hushed, and the Mitre without orfrey is brought. They on the other hand who contend for red, affirm that it is a day of martyrdom, in commemoration principally whereof the Church saith, 'All the Saints cry out beneath the Throne of God, Avenge out blood which is poured forth, O Lord our God.' (So also upon Laetare Sunday, for the joy which the Goden Rose bespeaketh, the Bishop of Rome hath a Mitre adorned with the orfrey, but black Vestments, by reason of the Lenten Fast.) But the Roman Church useth violet Vestments upon Holy Innocents' Day, when it falleth upon other than Sunday, and upon its Octave, always red.
7. The colour that remaineth is Green, and this is used at the following times:
Upon ferial and common days, because this colour is a kind of mean betwixt white, and black, and red.
And especially between the Octave of Epiphany and Septuagesima, and between Pentecost and Advent, whensoever the Office shall be of that Sunday. For this colour is exprest in the words, CAMPHIRE WITH SPIKENARD, SPIKENARD AND SAFFRON.
8. And unto these four colours thou mayest refer all the others: namely, unto red, scarlet; unto black, violet; unto white, fine linen; and unto green, yellow. Nevertheles according to some the rose belongeth unto Martyrs, the yellow crocus to Confessors, and the lily unto Virgins. And of colours I will treat also at the end of the following chapter.
9. It is not unmeet to use Violet at those seasons whereunto black belongeth. Thus the Roman Church useth violet from the first Sunday of Advent unto Mass on the Vigil of the Nativity inclusively, and from Septuagesima unto Mass on Easter Eve exclusively of the latter, whensoever the Office is of the season; except upon Maundy Thursday and Good Friday. But upon such Saints' Days as occur in Lent and Advent neither black nor violet is to be worn. And be it understood that upon Holy Saturday violet is to be worn at every office which hath place before Mass; with this exception, that the Deacon who blesseth the Paschal Candle, and the Subdeacon who serveth him, are vested respectively in a Dalmatic and Tunicle of white, for that such Blessing of the Candle, as also the Mass itself, hath respect unto the Resurrection. But after the Blessing done, the Deacon layeth aside his Dalmatic, and putting on a violet folded-chasuble keepeth the same even until the beginning of Mass. But the Subdeacon changeth not his Vestments.
Some, again, wear white Vestments upon Palm Sunday in the Procession and at the Blessing of Palm-branches, and during the singing of the Gospel and of the Gloria laus et honor, by reason of the gladness of the honour offered unto Christ, which is commemorated in those parts of the Office. But the Roman Church useth always violet at those times; as also in the Procession before Mass on the Feast of the Purification, because that Office bringeth to mind the anxious expectation of Symeon, and savoureth of the Old Testament.
10. The Roman Church useth Violet also upon the Ember Days of September, and upon such Vigils of Saints' Days as are Fasts, when Mass shall be of the Vigil. Also upon Rogation Days, and at the Mass of Litanies upon the Feast of Saint Mark. For when we fast, we do buffet and crucify the flesh, that being livid with stripes t may be conformed unto the stripes which Christ suffered, WITH THOSE STRIPES WE ARE HEALED; and in token hereof we do at times of fasting use violet, which is pale, and as it were the hue of stripes.
It may be noted that at the Feast of Easter there are Veils of three colours placed upon the Altar.
OF THE VESTMENTS OF THE LAW, OR OF THE OLD TESTAMENT
1. Now seeing that human weakness comprehendeth the meaning of things the less fully, if it be ignorant essentially of the things themselves; we will say a few words upon the Vestments of the Law, unto the dispelling of this bling ignorance whereof I speak. And let us treat them, first, according to history; secondly, according to allegory; and thirdly, according to parable.
First, then, as speaking historically, thou must know that according to the Mosaic Law there were four Vestments common both to the lesser Priests and to the High Priest himself; and of these we read in the twenty-eighth chapter of Exodus.
The first was called Manascasim, that is, linen Breeches, wove of fine twined linen, worn for that purpose whereof we read in the twentieth chapter of Exodus, THOU SHALT NOT GO UP BY STEPS UNTO MINE ALTAR, THAT THY NAKEDNESS BE NOT DISCOVERED THEREON.
The second was the Cathemone, or the Linen Coat, which we call the Subuncula, or Albe; but Moses calleth it Abaneth; and the Hebrews, when they departed from babylon, called it Emissanea. This was of fine linen, and twofold.
The third was Balteus, that is, the Zone or Girdle; this was about four fingers in breadth, and was netlike, so as to resemble a viper's skin; and it was wove of fine linen, scarlet, purple, and blue, which were the symbols of the four elements.
The fourth was the Tiara, which the Hebrews named Mamphie, and which we call Bonnet, or Mitre; this, in the case of the lesser Priests, differed for the most part from the High Priest's Mitre, resembling in shape a round helm.
2. Over and above these four common Vestments, there were four worn by the High Priest, peculiar to him.
The first was the blue Robe, called in hebrew Vethit, in Greek Poderes, in Latin Talaris, that is, the garment that reacheth unto the feet; it had for its fringes pomegranates and eighty golden bells disposed alternately, that the sound of the latter might be heard when the High Priest entered into the sanctuary, that he die not.
3. The second was the Ephod, or Superhumeral. This was wove of the four colours aforesaid, with gold; it was sleeveless, after the manner of an undergarment, having an opening in the breast of a span square, wherein was fastened the Breastplate, being of the same size. And upon the upper part of the Ephod, that is, upon its shoulders, were set in golden ouches two onyx-stones, whereon were graven the names of the twelve sons of Israel, six on the one, and six on the other. We read that Samuel and David were glad with an ephod; but this was of linen, and was properly called Ephotar.
4. The third, called in Hebrew Heen, in Greek Logion, and in Latin Rationale, or Breastplate, was worn by the High priest upon his breast. It was called the Breastplate of Judgment; for these was a stone therein, by whose brightness he knew that God was favourable unto him. Now the Breastplate was four-square, being doubled, a span broad and long; it was fashioned of the four colours foregoing, with gold. And it had twelve stones, even four rows of stones. In the first row were a sardius, a topaz, and an emerald. In the second row, a carbuncle, a sapphire, and a jasper. In the third, a ligure, an agate, and an amethyst. In the fourth, a chrysolite, an onyx, and a beryl-stone. And upon these were graven the names of the twelve sons of Israel, every one with his name, according unto the order of their birth; and upon the Breastplate were inscribed also these two words, URIM, THUMMIM, that is, Doctrine and Truth. And the Breastplate was made fast at its upper part unto the Ephod by two rings, unto which were attached two golden chains, the other ends of the chains being fastened into two ouches which were fixt beneath the aforesaid onyx-stones to the Ephod; and at its lower part also it was joined unto the Ephod by the means of two other golden rings, into which were fastened two strings or laces of blue.
5. The fourth and last Vestment was that of the head, to wit, the Tiara or Mitre; this did end in a point. and had a golden circlet, with pomegranates and flowers; and from it there did hang down upon the brow a Plate of gold, in the shape of an half-moon, whereon was written Anoth Adonai, to wit, the Holy name of the Lord, the Tetragrammaton or Four-lettered Name, whereof again below. And this plate, lest it should move when the High Priest moved, was bound with a blue lace or ribband, plain to see, having its ends flowing loosely behind.
Now our own Bishop hath,
In the stead of the Breeches, the Sandals.
For the Linen Coat he hath the Albe.
For the Girdle, the Girdle.
For the Robe of the Ephod, the Tunic.
For the Ephod, the Amice, or the Stole.
For the Breastplate, the Pall.
For the ancient Mitre or tiara, the Mitre.
For the Golden Plate, the Cross.
And of these Vestments certain have a different shape from those, but each hath the same notion as that other which it representeth.
6. Secondly, let us speak of the meaning of the aforesaid Vestments of the Law, according to allegory.
The High Priest, adorned with these Vestments, did represent as in a picture the whole of Creation. For the Breeches of fine linen did meetly signify the earth, because fine linen cometh from the earth. The Girdle, with its laces and strings, denoted the ocean that windeth round it. The blue Tunic, by its hue, was the firmament; the Bells, the sound of thunder; the Pomegranates, the gleam of lighnings. The four Vestments of the lesser Priest, and the four of the greater, represented by their number the four parts of Man, the Microcosm, and the four parts of Nature, the Macrocosm, to wit, the four Temperaments, and the four Elements. the Ephod, with its many hues, was a picture of the starry heaven; the gold interwove with the colours, the warmth of life which penetrateth all things; and the two onyx-stones were the sun and moon, or the two hemispheres. The twelve pectoral jewels in the Breastplate represented the twelve signs of the zodiac; and the Breastplate itself, or Rationale, being in the midst, did shew forth that Ratio or Law whereof all things on earth are full, whereby they cleave in ondeience unto things in the heavens; yea, the law of the life of earth, and of the seasons of heat and cold and the temperate periods between heat them both, which cometh down from the law of the courses of the heavenly bodies. The rings and chains and ouches signified the linking together of the elements, and temperaments, and seasons. the Mitre shadowed forth the vast vault of heaven; the Golden Plate upon it represented God presiding over all things. And all this allegory is confirmed by the authority of the eighteenth chapter of the Book of Wisdom, wherin it is written, FOR IN THE LONG GARMENT, WHICH HE HAD, WAS THE WHOLE WORLD, AND IN THE FOUR ROWS OF THE STONES WAS THE GLORY OF THE FATHERS GRAVEN, AND THY MAJESTY UPON THE DIADEM OF HIS HEAD.
7. In the third place must be added the explication of the Vestments of the Law according to parable.
Now the following was the order wherein the Priest of the Law was wont to array himself in the Vestments.
Having first washed his hands and feet, he put on the Breeches, in token that the Priest, having cleansed his affections and works with the tears of penance, ought to put on Continence, that he might offer a sacrifice without spot, sacred, acceptable unto God. But our own Bishop, for that he ought to have continence alway, putteth not on breeches for sacrifice, but Sandals, as though one might say, HE THAT IS BATHED NEEDETH NOT SAVE TO WASH HIS FEET, BUT IS CLEAN EVERY WHIT. For by the hands are signified works, according to that Scripture, BLESSED BE THE LORD MY STRENGTH, WHO TEACHETH MY HANDS TO WAR, AND MY FINGERS TO FIGHT; and by the feet the affections, as it is written, SHAKE OFF THE DUST OF YOUR FEET. And it is to be noted, that the Priest did himself put on him the Breeches, which were a type of virginal continence: these, I say, for that virginity is a matter of counsel, not of commandment, he did put on with his own hand, in agreement with that of Paul to the Corinthians, NOW CONCERNING VIRGINS I HAVE NO COMMANDMENT OF THE LORD; BUT I GIVE MY JUDGMENT. And the Lord in the Gospel saith Himself, HE THAT IS ABLE TO RECEIVE IT, LET HIM RECEIVE IT. Also the Priests were wont to put on this Vestment by turns, because they were not held bound to perpetual virginity, as are the ministers of the New Testamnet; and for this reason, according to some, there is no Vestment nowadays answering thereto.
8. Next, he put on the Linen Coat, in token that the Priest ought to put on innocence, that he do not unto others that which he would not have them do unto him. For linen by its whiteness doth signify innocence, as it is written, LET THY GARMENTS BE ALWAYS WHITE.
9. In the third place he girded him with the Girdle, the type of Chastity, wherewith he must be girt around the loins, that he might keep in subjection the concupisence of the flesh; as saith the Truth, LET YOUR LOINS BE GIRDED ABOUT, AND YOUR LIGHTS BURNING IN YOUR HANDS. This Girdle, being woven of four colours, as is aforesaid, did betoken that he ought to bridle all motions that should arise from the four temperaments, or from the four elements; as it is said in the last chapter of the Proverbs, A VIRTUOUS WOMAN DELIVERETH GIRDLES UNTO THE MERCHANT; and in the eleventh chapter of Esaias, RIGHTEOUSNESS SHALL BE THE GIRDLE OF HIS LOINS. For it is by righteousness that all such animal motions are restrained. The Girdle also did hang down even unto the feet, for that he must be clean, yea, even unto the end of his life.
10. The fourth Vestment he put on was the Robe, which reached unto the heel, meaning that he must put on Perseverance; for HE THAT ENDURTH UNTO THE END SHALL BE SAVED. For by the heel, which is the end of the body, we understand Perseverance, as it is written, IT SHALL BRUISE THY HEAD, AND THOU SHAL BRUISE HIS HEEL. For a fringe, too, there hung from the Robe pomegranates with golden bells; now the pomegranate signifieth work, and the golden bells, preaching: which two things must be combined in the Priest, that HE DIE NOT, entering in without them into the sanctuary before the Lord. For Jesus Himself BEGAN BOTH TO DO AND TEACH, leaving unto Priests AN EXAMPLE, THAT THEY SHOULD FOLLOW HIS STEPS; WHO DID NO SIN, that righteousness might be found in their lives, NEITHER WAS GUILE FOUND IN HIS MOUTH, that in their preaching truth might be found.
By the bells, again, we understand the preacher's voice, that the Priest provoke not by his silence the judgment of Him, Who being above seeth all things; and the pomegranates are the pattern of a good life, or the spirit of martyrdom, because by fruit of this kind the sick are refreshed. According to Gregory, the Priest must die, if on going in or out his sound be not heard; which is to say, that he bringeth upon himself the wrath of Him that judgeth in secret, if he walk without the sound of preaching: and with this it agreeth well that he should have bells, as we read, fastened unto his Vestments. Moreover, what are we to understand by the Priest's Vestments, save righteoud works, according unto that of the Prophet, LET THY PRIESTS BE CLOTHED WITH RIGHTEOUSNESS? wherefore the bells cleave unto his Vestments, that his very works may proclaim, as it were with tongues, his life's way. And the bells are joined with pomegranates, because these latter signify the unity of the Faith; for as in the pomegranate many seeds within are united together beneath one rind without, so the innumerable peoples of Holy Church are all overspread with the Unity of the One Faith, albeit they have a diversity of merit within.
11. The fifth Vestment he put on was the Ephod, which he placed over his shoulders, to shew that the High Priest ought to put on patience, that IN HIS PATIENCE HE MIGHT POSSESS HIS SOUL; for it is upon the shoulders that we carry burthens, as it is written, HE BOWED HIS SHOULDER TO BEAR, AND BECAME A SERVANT UNTO TRIBUTE. And it had the two shoulder-pieces thereof joined at the two edges thereof, signifying that the High Priest ought to have the ARMOUR OF RIGHTEOUSNESS ON THE RIGHT HAND AND ON THE LEFT, that he be not puffed up with well-being, nor cast down with reverses. Also were there two onyx-stones fastened int the shoulders thereof, whereon were graven the twelve names of the children of Israel, six on the one, and six on the other; and by these two stones were represented Truth and Singleness - Truth, by their brightness, and Singleness by their solidity; and the names of the children of Israel were holy desires and works of righteousness, as it is written, 'Cursed is the man that hath not left seed in Israel.' The number six also doth denote perfection, for that on the sixth day God FINISHED THE HEAVENS AND THE EARTH, AND ALL THE HOST OF THEM. Thus the graving of the six names of the children of Israel on the one stone, and six on the other, was a sign that the desires and works of the Priest ought not to stand in the LEAVEN OF MALICE AND WICKEDNESS, BUT IN THE UNLEAVENED BREAD OF SINCERITY AND TRUTH; that his intention be informed with Singleness, and his end with Truth.
Gregory, in his Pastoral Letter, saith that they were bidden to make the Ephod of gold, and blue, and purple, and twice-dyed scarlet, and fine twined linen, for the shewing forth that great diversity of virtues, wherewith the life of the Priest should shine. And in his garments it is gold that gleameth forth above all things, in token that in his life the understanding of wisdom must shine out before all. And to this is added blue, which gleameth in the hue of heaven, that all things through which he maketh way by his understanding may not minister unto earthly men-pleasing, but may soar up into the love of heavenly things; lest while he is unwisely taken up with praises of himself, he himself become void of the understanding of truth. With the gold and the blue there is also purple mingled, that the heart of the Priest, while it hath hope concerning those lofty things which he preacheth, may repress in itself the suggestions of evil, and may as it were by a royal authority refute them. Again, to the gold and the blue, the fine linen and the purple, was added scarlet twice-dyed, that before the eyes of Him Who judgeth the hearts the excellencies of all his virtues might be adorned with the ornaments of Charity; and that all those merits in him which glitter before the eyes of men, might be kindled in the sight of the Secret Judge with the flame of an inner love. For this is Charity, that a man should love both God and his neighbour, doth gleam as it were with a double tinge. But when the mind inclineth unto the precepts of Charity, it remaineth that one buffet the flesh by Abstinence; wherefore unto the twice-dyed scarlet fine twined linen is added. For fine linen cometh from the earth, with its radiant whiteness; what meanenth it, thereforem but the body's chastity, so white with her comely pureness? And it is also twisted, ere it be inwoven with the beauth of the Ephod; because it is when the flesh is wearied with fasting, that Chastity is brought unto her whiteness clean and perfect. For when amongst the other virtues the body's discipline flourisheth, it is as though, amidst the varied beauty of the Ephod, the fine twined linen shewed its gleam.
12. The sixth Vestment was the Breastplate or Rationale, whcih was to say that the High Priest must put on discretion, whereby he may distinguish between light and darkness, between the right hand and the left; for light hath no fellowship with darkness, neither CHRIST WITH BELIAL. This Breastplate also was four-square, shewing that he must make distinction between four things, namely, between truth and falsehood, that he swerve not in believing; and between good and evil, that he swerve not in doing. Double also it was, for that there were two on whose behalf he must see clearly, to wit, on his own behalf, and on his people's; lest, the blind leading the blind, both should fall into the ditch. And it had four rows of precious stones, because he must have four Cardinal Virtues, namely, Justice, Fortitude, Prudence, and Temperance; and in each row it had three stones, for that he should have, first, Faith, Hope, and Charity; secondly, Modesty, Gentleness, and Kindness; thirdly, Peace, Mercy and Liberality; and fourthly, Vigilance, Carfulness, and Long-suffering. For precious stones are virtues, according to that scripture, that one buildeth GOLD, SILVER, AND PRECIOUS STONES.
13. Two chains also it had of purest gold, attached thereto each in his place, and them-selves fastened into two ouches, signifying that the High Priest ought to have two affections of love, that is, unto God and his neighbour; whereof we are taught, THOU SHALT LOVE THE LORD THY GOD WITH ALL THY HEART, AND THY NEIGHBOUR AS THYSELF. For as gold taketh above all metals the pre-eminence, so Charity excelleth all virtues, as saith the Apostle concerning it, THE GREATEST OF THESE IS CHARITY. The two ouches, into which the chains were fastened, were Intention and Consummation, that he should love God and his neighbour OUT OF A PURE HEART, AND OF A GOOD CONSCIENCE, AND OF FAITH UNFEIGNED, and also for the sake of blessedness; loving God for his own sake, and his neighbour for God's. And this Breastplate of Judgment which Aaron wore, and whereon were inscribed the names of the twelve Patriarchs, was, as Gregory saith, rightly called by this name; because a ruler ought ever with subtle discrimination to judge betwixt good and evil: determining what things are meet to be diligently observed, and by whom, and at what time, and after what manner; and not to seek his own, but to deem that the good of others agreeth best unto his own weal. Thus in the Book of Exodus it is written, AND THOU SHALT PUT IN THE BREASTPLATE OG JUDGMENT THE URIM AND THE THUMMIM; AND THEY SHALL BE UPON AARON'S HEART, WHEN HE GOETH IN BEFORE THE LORD: AND AARON SHALL BEAR THE JUDGMENT OF THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL UPON HIS HEART BEFORE THE LORD CONTINUALLY. Now, if a Priest 'bear the judgment of the children of Israel upon his heart before the Lord,' it is to say that he pleadeth the cause of his flock before that Judge alone, Who seeth the hearts of men.
14. Some, however, have said that there is no Vestment to-day which answereth to the Breastplate, because there is amongst us no plenty of precious stones. Yet it is after the fashion of the Breastplate that the Bishop, at his consecration, beareth the Text of the Gospels before his breast in the sight of all the people; for in this Text Doctrine and Truth are put in writing; and also ought the Bishop to have in his heart the Truth of the Gospel, and in his mouth its Doctrine as pertaineth to the setting forth thereof. And this, it may chance, is the reason why in certain Churches the covers of the script of the Gospels are embellished with gold, and silver, and precious stones; and there is another reason, for that in the wisdom of the Gospel there gleameth the gold of wisdom, the silver of eloquence, and the precious stones of wondrous works; these are the Bride's BORDERS OF GOLD, WITH STUDS OF SILVER.
15. The seventh and last Vestment was that of the head, the Mitre or Tiara, which the High Priest put on last of all, and which signified humility; whereof the Lord said, WHOSOEVER EXALTETH HIMSELF SHALL BE ABASED, AND HE THAT HUMBLETH HIMSELF SHALL BE EXALTED. This he wore on his head, to shew that the High Priest ought to bear humility in his mind; after the example of our Head, Who saith, LEARN OF ME, FOR I AM MEEK AND LOWLY IN HEART. For by the head we do understand the mind, as it is written, ANOINT THINE HEAD, AND WASH THY FACE. Again, the Mitre, as worn by the lesser Priests, signified Continence in the five senses; but as worn by the higher, Contemplation, whereunto they ought to be given.
16. From the front of the Mitre there hung down the Golden Plate, which was a figure of wisdom; or, if thou wilt, it foreshadowed the Sign of the Cross, which is made in the Office of Confirmation. And upon this was graven the Tetragrammaton, that is, the Four-lettered Name of the Lord; and the letters were Yod, He, Vav, He, that is, The Beginning of the Life of Passion. Or, if one should speak more plainly, Christ, in Whose Name that High Priest did act, is the Beginning or Author of the Life of Passion, which is to say the Life that hath been restored through His Passion; for BY HIS DEATH HE HATH DESTROYED OUR DEATH, AND BY HIS RISING TO LIFE AGAIN HATH RESTORED TO US EVERLASTING LIFE.
17. Now all these Vestments were for the more part wove with work of varied colours, symbolising the variety of the virtues; whereof saith the Psalmist, UPON THY RIGHT HAND DID STAND THE QUEEN IN A VESTURE OF GOLD, WROUGHT ABOUT WITH DIVERS COLOURS. And of four precious colours were they wove, namely, purple, scarlet, fine linen, and blue. The purple, the hue of kingly dignity, was the High-Priestly power; which needs must walk a royal way, that it deviate neither to the right hand nor to the left, that it bind not the worthy, nor loose the unworthy. The purple also signified water, because the worms that wrought it dwelt in shells of the sea. The scarlet, being of the colour of fire, signifieth the doctrine of the High Priest, which must gleam and burn like fire; wherefore also it is said to have been twice-dyed. For it must gleam, in promise, as that everyone who shall have left HOUSE, OR FATHER, OR MOTHER, FOR HIS NAME'S SAKE, SHALL RECEIVE AN HUNDREDFOLD, AND SHALL INHERIT EVERLASTING LIFE: and it must burn, in threatening, as that EVERY TREE WHICH BRINGETH NOT FORTH GOOD FRUIT SHALL BE HEWN DOWN, AND CAST INTO THE FIRE.
18. Hence it cometh that the Sovereign Pontiff is ever seen to be clad with a red robe without, while he weareth white garments within. For within he must be white with yet another whiteness, that is, Innocency and Chrity; and without he must be red as in token of compassion, that is, that he may shew himself ever ready to lay down his life for his sheep: for that he is Vice-gerent of Him Who made red His garments for all the world's sheep.
19. But by indulgence of Constantine, Emperor, he may wear a purple cloak and a scarlet tunic, and all the robes of empire, the sceptre, the insignia, and ornaments. And whithersoever he goeth the Cross is borne in front of him, to shew that this Sign agreeth unto him more than unto all other; as it is written by the Apostle, GOD FORBID THAT I SHOULD GLORY, SAVE IN THE CROSS OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST; that he may know it to be his duty to imitate the Crucified. Again, the scarlet twice-dyed in the High Priest's Vestments is Charity, which is as it were twice dyed, being coloured with the love of God, and the love of his neighbour.
By the fine linen, being of excellent whiteness, is signified the excellence of a good report; and it must be twined, that the High Priest might have a good report both of them that are within, and of them that are without, as the Apostle hinteth.
And lastly, the blue, being the colour of the firmament, signified that serenity of conscience which the High Priest must have within himself, according to that word of the Apostle, FOR OUR REJOICING IS THIS, THE TESTIMONY OF OUR CONSCIENCE.
HERE ENDETH THE BOOK OF THE VESTMENTS OF THE CHURCH